Most of us think about history in terms of the events we have personally witnessed. “But history precedes us and then continues with the next generations,” says John Paul, host of the WILL-TV’s Illinois Pioneers. This episode shows how the history of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is much richer than most of those who pass through the campus realize.
Paul interviews Professor Emeritus Winton Solberg, author of three books on the university’s past, as they discuss the formative years of the university, even before it made its home in Urbana-Champaign. Had it not been for the efforts of a particularly vigorous and vocal politician, Clark Griggs, the university might have ended up in Jacksonville, Bloomington-Normal or Lincoln. Paul says the agreement to found the university in Urbana “was Illinois politics as usual. Strings were pulled. Deals were made.”
The first campus building, located roughly where the Beckman Institute now stands, housed all classrooms, libraries, offices and laboratories, and was derisively nicknamed “The Elephant” by mid-19th century students. Also within those walls, university policy required all students to perform daily military drills, as well as attend daily chapel and religious instruction.
The Morrill Act, which provided federal funding and support for land grant universities not just in Illinois but nationwide, was signed by President Lincoln in the middle of the Civil War when the Union government needed more educated officers. Illinois Pioneers touches on seminal university figures such as Jonathan Baldwin Turner, who expanded the university’s industrial and agricultural curriculum to include a greater variety of subjects and classes, and John Milton Gregory, the university’s first regent who requested that his final resting place be on campus.
The program also delves into the stories behind the names of prominent campus buildings, areas and streets, such as Mathews, Peabody and Morrow, reminding us how the university’s early legacy is still alive today—if we only take the time to learn about it.
The first streetcar in Champaign-Urbana was powered by horses, pulling passengers on a rail between the Illinois Central depot in Champaign and the courthouse in Urbana. When electricity came to town in the 1890s, horses were phased out and the line extended, with power coming from wires above instead of horses.
On this WILL-TV Illinois Pioneers episode, John Paul and his guest George Friedman look back at the days when streetcars were the way to get around town and when the Interurban Railway made it easy to travel from city to city in central Illinois. “The Interurban was to streetcars as a Greyhound bus is to a city bus,” said Friedman, a retired University of Illinois professor whose hobby is researching the history of transportation in the area.
The Gazette offered this advice for boarding a streetcar: “Never stand on the sidewalk if you wish to hail a motor car (a streetcar), but step out on the crossing and stand near enough to the track to keep from getting struck by the car. Don’t wait until the car is past you and then yell ‘stop the car.’ When the car is about a quarter of a block from you, just quietly raise one hand and by the time the car has reached you the motorman will have it under control.”
Friedman tells Paul that in the early days, transportation was strictly privately owned. “Businessmen got into it because they thought they could make money,” he said. William McKinley, who became a U.S. Congressman and Senator, as well as a U of I trustee, owned both the streetcars and the electric utility in the early days, Friedman said.
Photos of streetcars in downtown Champaign and on campus, as well as rare video footage of the Interurban Railway, help Paul and Friedman tell the story.
The presence of railroad workers, soldiers from Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul and University of Illinois students insured that Champaign always had its share of vice.
City officials sometimes ignored it, said John Paul, host of this WILL-TV’s Illinois Pioneers episode on the history of vice and bootlegging in Champaign. But occasionally, dramatic incidents made the community take notice and even take action.
Paul and his guest, city of Champaign history enthusiast Mark Chenail, talk about a 1939 case in which 20-year-old sophomore U of I engineering student William Spurrier was out drinking with some friends, when they decided to visit the Pullman Hotel, a brothel in near the Illinois Central tracks. After operator Margaret Strothers refused their entrance, the students pelted the door with bottles. Strothers fired her gun, hitting Spurrier, who died the next day.
Classes were cancelled the following Monday as students held a mass meeting U of I President A.C. Willard at Huff Gym to discuss the situation. The Daily Illini and News-Gazette demanded action from the city, as did U of I Trustees. Some officials ended up losing their jobs.
Paul and Chenail also talk about the days of Prohibition, including the time a 26-year-old federal agent named Eliot Ness, not yet a household name, went undercover as a student at the U of I to ferret out illegal drinking at fraternity houses. “He apparently blended right in,” said Chenail.
They also look at the time Carrie Nation brought her temperance campaign to Champaign in the days before Prohibition. Chenail looks at the reasons Champaign and Urbana banned liquor in May 1907, 13 years before Prohibition.
“I chose the subject of vice because it’s a forgotten, but shocking part of Champaign history,” said Paul. “We think of Champaign as a pretty nice city, but at one point, it wasn’t.”
Erma Bridgewater, who graduated from Champaign High School in 1931, recalls jumping on the back of a moving company’s horse-pulled wagon to hitch a ride to elementary school. “The driver would pretend that he didn’t know we were there,” she said. Bridgewater and Cheryl Van Ness of Champaign talk about their recollections of attending schools in Champaign County.
Host John Paul and his guests talk about earlier times in local schools and look at historic photos of schools, classrooms and leaders such as Dr. Hartwell C. Howard, for whom Dr. Howard School is named.
Bridgewater helped integrate Lincoln School, now an apartment building at the corner of Healey and State streets, in 1917. She and her brother were the only black students, because most African-Americans lived in the north part of town and attended another school.
Van Ness attended Bondville grade school, which was closed by the district in 1971. She was in the first graduating class from Centennial High School.
“It will be a chance to look back at how the school district has evolved over the years,” Paul said. The program will also look at some of the schools that are no longer there, about some of the sports teams that won state championships, and about periods when enrollment soared, resulting in the building of schools to keep up with the numbers of children, he said.
Funding for Illinois Pioneers – Champaign @ 150 is made possible, in part, by the Noel Foundation, and by donors to the Champaign 150th Anniversary Celebration Fund. More information on the city’s 150th Anniversary is at champaign150.com.
Remember when newspapers had competition and when broadcasting was new and experimental? We’re premiering WILL-TV’s next episode of "Illinois Pioneers" here on Vimeo and Facebook! Follow the link the watch the program now about the history of the media in Champaign County. You can also watch it on WILL-TV Thursday, June 24, 2010, at 7:30 pm. Let us know what you think in the comments.
Program detail: Host John Paul talks to Tom Kacich of the Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette and Doug Quick, weather broadcaster and broadcast historian, about when Champaign-Urbana had as many as seven local newspapers and about the early days of radio and TV in the county. They look at old photos and share stories.
Theater historian Perry Morris joins WILL-TV’s John Paul to look back at the days when downtown Champaign was filled with theaters. Morris and Paul look at photos of the grand dames of the Champaign theater district and bright neon marquees lighting up downtown streets.
The show examines the days of the opera houses, when Mark Twain, the Marx Brothers, Houdini, Frederick Douglass, Sarah Bernhardt and Susan B. Anthony came to town to speak or perform. “The first opera house was Barrett’s-Swannell’s where Jim Gould’s restaurant is now at the corner of Neil and Main. It operated above Swannell’s drug store and opened the same year Lincoln was shot, 1865,” Paul said.
“We gathered some great photos showing some of the 15 different locations of downtown Champaign theaters and their marquees,” Paul said. The names changed often for many of the locations, he said. The Varsity, which opened in 1906, became the Rex, the Illini, the Encore and then the Illini again, he said. One theater still remaining is the Art, which opened as the Park Theatre in downtown Champaign in 1913; it joined the Crescent Theatre, the Crystal Theatre, the Lyric Theatre, the Varsity Theatre, and the Walker Opera House.
Over the next few years, the Orpheum Theatre, Theatre Belvoir (later known as The Rialto), and the Virginia Theatre opened. The Art still operates as a movie theater, the Virginia houses live performances and movies, and the Orpheum provides a home for a children’s science museum. “But most of the theaters have disappeared,” Paul said.
Paul and Morris also talk to Leonard Doyle, a former usher and manager at the Virginia, who has been associated with Champaign theaters for the past 40 years.
Kyle Robeson, grandson of the founder of Robeson's Department Store, and Gordon Tracy, general manager of Joseph Kuhn's and former employee of W. Lewis and Company, discuss the the rise and fall of the downtown department stores in Champaign. Opened in 1865, Kuhn's was the first, and still exists. Others went out of business or moved to moved to Marketplace Mall once it was built.
WILL-TV’s Illinois Pioneers looks at the history of business and industry in Champaign with the help of former Champaign mayor Dan McCollum and developer and businessman George Shapland.
Looking at photos of businesses like the Cunningham Brothers Drug Store, Eisner grocery stores, First National Bank, Frank Miller Livery and Boarding Stable, Burnham Hospital and Kraft, the two men tell stories about the people that made the businesses thrive and buildings that housed them.
Included are a photo of the interior of the Cunningham’s drug store showing rounded glass display cases full of items for sale; a photo of Eisner delivery trucks from 1957; and a photo of the Coca-Cola bottling plant. The guests talk with host Rick Atterberry about fires that decimated whole blocks of town, resulting in a changing landscape. But McCollum said fires weren’t the primary source of change. “I think more happened because they were mowing down buildings to build parking lots,” he said.
Historian and former Champaign mayor Dan McCollum discusses the arrival of the Illinois Central Railroad in 1854. The town that grew up around the tracks originally was called West Urbana. It was renamed Champaign after the town took action to acquire a city charter in 1860. The city and county names were derived from Champaign County, Ohio. About 10,000 men worked at any one time on the rail line. The depot, called Urbana Station, was built in time for the first train to arrive July 24, 1854.
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