The Gettysburg Address

November 18, 2013

150 years ago tomorrow, President Lincoln delivered one of the best known speeches in American history. Do you remember, without looking it up, when the battle happened that inspired the speech? Today on Focus, Jim Meadows talks with Bruce Levine about the significance of the Gettysburg address and the Battle of Gettysburg. Levine says that while the Battle of Gettysburg is one of the most important battles of the war, the Gettysburg Address is not the most important speech Lincoln gave during that time period. We’ll talk about why that speech became so famous and what that says about American history. 

Pop Up Archive Item: “The Gettysburg Address” :
Transcript for file: focus131118a.mp3


four score and seven years ago these words open President Abraham Lincoln speech
consecration of the National Cemetery in Gettysburg Pennsylvania
150 years ago tomorrow Gettysburg Address is Lincoln’s most famous
famous speech but it might be a little overrated so says University of Illinois


Illinois history professor Bruce Levine guest today on Fox
you pay more attention to the actual Battle of Gettysburg office
describe does the turning point of the Civil War MJ meadows and Bruce Levine with a skull
discuss Gettysburg speech and the battle today on Fox

program continues after the news
welcome to focus mg Meadows tomorrow marks the 150th anniversary


reverse rid of Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address Abraham Lincoln Presidential
Central Library and Museum in Springfield is marking the event with a vigil it begins
1067 the ceiling a climax is it midnight with a picture of Lincoln portrait
portrayed by a factor for Klein reading the address the Gettysburg
what is burg address maybe Abraham Lincoln’s most famous speech what is it is most important
importing one I guess today has his own thoughts on the matter as well as on the A Team
1863 Battle of Gettysburg that inspired the speech


Bruce Levine is the JT rental distinguished professor of history of the University of Illinois
Illinois the author of several books in the Civil War most recently the Fall of the House
the house of Dixie the Civil War and the social revolution the transform the south Public
Random House fence Lavigne welcome to focus thank you Jim
thank you for being with us in the walking your questions also during the program
at 1 800 2229 455 toll free 1 800
802 22 WILL you can also email us at will


will dash talk at also welcome your questions on face
Facebook and Twitter at focus 580 in a few minutes I’m going to play
play a reading of the Gettysburg Address its its short enough that we can comfortably
Comfortably do that during the program but I love but a professor Lavigne I wanted to ask you jizz
you just a test just for starters what do you think of the Gettysburg Address concert
considering how famous is a doesn’t do it justice of to the occasion
casein in the themes of a Lincoln’s presidency what does I think


Think and it doesn’t I think this is an address on
Pacific an important aspect of the war but doesn’t answer
emphasize everything that’s important about the war it’s a beautiful dress
it’s quite poetic social quite sure which is a distinct advantage
but it talks primarily about this
how to feed of saving the republican form of government from those
who are trying in this case in Lincoln do to destroy it


and that is indeed the cause of least the
immediate cause of the war and say a very important
16 republican government with in short supply in the transatlantic world
when was indeed the written by
secession and war but it is not I believe fundamentally a
a speech about emancipation in the destruction of slavery fat
fat is the focus of Lincoln’s second inaugural address and I see a greater


greater speech Gettysburg Address what what do you think this speech is such a
touch a well remembered what is brevity part of the reason I do think brevity is part of the
and literally strike it brief
if they said a moment ago is very poetic
it’s also a speech that appeals politically speaking to
to a probably a larger audience at the time I’ve been
when did the Second Inaugural because the larger number of northerners


where on board for the Union war effort in the service of sound
salvage in the Union then we’re the Attic about Obama
polishing slavery and I think therefore that
is that the appeal of the Gettysburg Address in focusing on the meatus
protect republican government appealing to that large
have greater staying power what lets go ahead and
listen to the Gettysburg Address is a reading by the director of our own Illinois


Illinois radio to service a teen guy can’t and I actually Klacid in a little
a little shorter even Lincoln’s reading the president reading for a large crowd to go for two
Vertu minutes Dinuba shorter than that four score and seven years ago our fathers
our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in Liberty and dedicated to the proposition
to the proposition that all men are created equal now we are engaged in a great civil war
Civil War testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived in so dedicated
can long endure we are met on a great battlefield is at war we’ve come to dedicate a Porsche


a portion of that field is the final resting place for those who hear gave their lives
what’s the destination might live is all together fitting improper that we should do this
banana larger sense we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate
we cannot hallow this ground the brave men living and dead who struggled
struggle deer have consecrated far above our poor power to add or detract
the world will little note nor long remember what we say here but it can never forget
forget what they did here is for us the living rather be dedicated here


here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have this far so no bleed vans
advance is ready for us to be here dedicated to the great ass creaming before
Forest from these honor dead we take increased devotion to that
that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly
highly resolve the dead shall not have died in vain that this nation
under God shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people
by the people for the people shall not perish from the earth


that is the Gettysburg Address read there by Dean Duncan of our own
Illinois radio readers service and it is really a very simple
simple piece of a of a simple speech tracing from the birth of
birth of the country to the Civil War and then calling on the audience
audience gathered here today we the living to continue the work that the soul
the soldiers did battle to a carry on on a note
Kim K ring on carry on the Union in the great experiment started with the declaration of


ration of Independence but what you are saying is missing there is the issue for men
emancipation Sears of phrase that is off inside
cited that it is off in class
claim jumpers to say the words
nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom and the number
the number of this location of Emancipation Proclamation
slavery if that was


engine uses a freezing
ice cream
Asian consecrated in Liberty and found it on the ice
sure masturbation
for the rest of those principles but I don’t think
that was what Lincoln


public no I’ve heard are you ready
what are cute I think it was my Ronald C whitening is Lincoln biography that in
in recalling at the beginning of the speech the all men are created equal passage
from the Declaration of Independence Lincoln was actually choose
choosing a line that was less popular than now in terms of lions called from the deck
declaration and one that implied an argument for and Megaman sepation maybe
baby to the degree that I could qualify as a as a is a political dog whistles at the time


time for all those who favored emancipation well as I say
is it possible
all men are created equal that is what does worth mean to Lincoln and asses with those words
they did not mean
Quality Inn today equality in the sense
free of sleep but me to Lincoln
is party for advocating for equality


equal rights Lincoln facts
so um I think
does worth signify 2008
with slavery necessarily a dog whistle for Wells
how to crack worth


clear discussing
emancipation itself with perfectly capable of doing bad as he did
was was Lincoln when did Lincoln
Lincoln is there a pattern of Lincoln being slow are working gradually towards
being more open 4th write about arguing for emancipation
I can I can see some picture there that Lincoln was trying to reach with asthma
is broad Annette as possible perhaps even trying to us


do I reach reach the hearts of Southerners who did not
who did not agree with succession well I think it’s true
true that looking for a bra it’s also true
Lincoln further and further direction
the time deliver the Gettysburg Address ready
David proclamation of commitment
55 at point is not doubt


simply might you weather in this species particularly referring to
Lincoln’s election cause section
however I sleep because his party was the case
the proposition that slavery what not to expand any further into the law
large Federal Territory the more of because Lincoln NE
hope this was the first step
steps to a seat slavery extinguisher


throughout the country of slavery is certainly pop off
Lincoln’s battle party takes awhile for them
Decatur worth
Lincoln was not ready very explicit terms
to claim that all those who died at Gettysburg has died
service emancipation
1865 national support for masturbation


grown practically
and I think he felt much for ground dedicating second
but not in 1863 I think
1863 ask to give a few remarks
Marques de que ting a cemetery for those who have fallen
battle Lincoln was primarily concerned for remind
his listeners that the lowest common denominator causes


was the preservation of the Democratic Republic
note Lincoln’s address at the Gettysburg Sarah cemetery at concert
consecration wasn’t even the main speech Indiana
well is it was Edward Everett to Anderson was was really
really quite well known as a beat maker at the time of the main address
yes he was a classic 19th century Florida and politician
fish in series of political offices president


Harvard someone with politics different from Lincoln by the way
our very Florida
address and also a rabbit forgettable it is available
on the internet so I enable my life Kem did a little more than I read it but it does
just take a classic form including of an opening not to antiquity buy a
comparing of the soldiers who died at Gettysburg to the soldiers
who died at the Battle of Marathon and we’re also Barry data set up at a cemetery


Jerry elected at the battlefield but um
it also does not talk about emancipation barely talks
songs about slavery besides outlining the battle in the events leading
leading up to the battle it seems to wall painting of the Confederacy as
as it wants to make sure that the Confederacy is seen is the offensive force
the attackers in this case and not certainly not the other
anoxia aggrieved party which was which was leaving morn sorrow than anger


buy the butter force which had actually according to Everett
Everett speech conspired Harley stunts are the stock real hard about
about for several years before hand of trying to take over the wall of the
the Washington DC themselves differences
why someone would likely to emphasize this affect
whatever it was someone who held from morphine
conservative women of the Union cause acne


1867 the vice presidential nominees ticket cost
the constitutional Union
Republicans really good for virtually nothing except
price national unity at any price
good for sleep because of compromises the subject of slavery
Zach by 1860 Lincoln
order to pay support


Port Edward Everett is a 6yr 1860
last minute vacations
okay it’s a I guess it’s interesting footnote at Lincoln ever
beverages far is a speech is were concerned seem to be assertive mutual admiration
Mason society those records of notes between the two of them admiring each other speeches
hope made
remember his speech on that for happy wheels


contributions to know
is worth well let’s take a call now and this is Paul
Paul from Champaign County online won the morning urine focus high
I told the screen write a question that doesn’t really on the plaza address but
but I do have something on that and I’m never the Campos
composer hear that to the piece called LGA which was Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
address it was one of the seven card pieces actually


Memorial Concert for him this week for happy but on the
just off what I understood from his presentation of it was that
he was revolted by the water of the Civil War which was
which was the first mechanized war when on a grade scale
huge massive casualties and on
and also included the server reticle
cool idea that the whole idea that you consecrate


soil with blood which is one of the images in the Gettysburg Address
so it’s quite what the word is radical preps
apps so I don’t know if you want to come in on that but what I have
about about was the Lincoln slave
inflate use on colonization I talk to about 1900
little piece from you on YouTube something on we’re you certify
reinforces idea that um it was president of the union


Union with paramount in any thoughts about the
citizen hood in the oven actual statuses
how to save after conflate afternoon was was
late breaking different then I have it on again
radical book of forced into glory by M Bennett
and from seeing him at a lake and a gathering in
in the Old State House once where’s the baiting people they bring up the fact that


Lincoln in very early days Cave of
serve non authorized money to the Negro removal office
office which was your service based at least it or Kylie on the end
the Indian Removal Act in with the idea that the first the office that was going to continue
attempts at the sending African stew
never known Africa quote unquote back to Africa
are anywhere that would take them off in the Caribbean etcetera etcetera know that’s kinda long winded


when did but I’ve been cracker pie with this for for some time and now
will professor Lavigne I’m wondering if you can can you dress that is too as to how much
how much weight do we know that I love the the neighbourhood Lincoln gave the idea
idea of love of send offs of sending off of
sending African Americans out of the US if I hurt
hurts to questions here colonization in one on slaughter
and whether it was to say that


Taco Bell
questions starting with colonization it should be late clear for support
colonization free black people
country was something that Lincoln had inherited from the man
Henry Clay
Lincoln in 1860 61 like play before he did not
black wife could live in harmony


44 they advocate what they call colonization
what should be the size of a bad as that look
looks 21st century was always understood as voluntary
immigration compulsory
is worse Lincoln was simply trying to persuade
free blacks to emigrate for their own sake
Lincoln faces calling for colonization


after the Emancipation Proclamation
that allows the government to make a financial
killer colonization experiment
the Caribbean 5 to be part of his public
public program and this is part of Lincoln
Lincoln’s political party
that’s my opinion is largely because Lincoln


find the active assistance
former slaves in order to win the war by the end of the war
40 most 200000 black men who have served
what’s that without
could not be preserved work with Nazis
well you can very well how to spawn
551 as you’re trying to usher these people at the door


so I say 666 to be part of what ministrations
public question on weather
about the creation of the soil
oil by blood the war horse
shorts and
1 picture lady


slavery and therefore giving slavery virtual
haps 45
responding to an arm
with arms suppression icing
I think that that was the classics
and that was the War Z
extinguish slavery in the United States


something that happens for a case
quite true life s*** soldiers at Gettysburg
consecrated best in life
types of Iraq and Afghanistan war in general is coming on a cloud
retrospectively impose upon a fairy
different for different era feelings we have


forced okay and I want to Saint Paul
Paul for the call by the way the piece of music setting mentioned Els GA
Wikipedia I can tell you it was composed by Salvatore Giovanni
Martorano who I talked for many years at the U of I and that’s considered his best
is best known a composition that became associated with the antiwar move
this is focusing wyll take a short break here and continue talking
talking about the Gettysburg Address in the Battle of Gettysburg with Professor Bruce Levine


amber back on focus on wyll
are subject is the Gettysburg Address in the Battle of Gettysburg tomorrow is the one
is the 150th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s delivery of the Gettysburg
address add a ceremony consecrating a cemetery are for the soldiers
soldiers killed at the Battle of Gettysburg welcome your questions incommons 1 800 22
2229 455 toll free 1 800 222
wyll email acid will dash talk at Illinois

00:25:35 and I as as we were noting a professor Levine
living the the the the Gettysburg Address does
commemorate of those who died at the Battle of Gettysburg and and really I think
YouTube the Battle of Gettysburg was probably more important than the speech
given after it by the way
Charles Sumner Express
510 speech


is that ideas are always more important
which that were true I don’t think it is
Battle of Gettysburg 4
414 what property lease
okay um can we can we a
can we do of a quick setting the scene for for what’s the situation
muscle it up to the battles of Gettysburg what was the objective of America


of the eye of the Confederate forces in the Bible
Army of Northern Virginia had already
racked up series a rather stunning
battlefield success is over the hill start
inside and now be filled with c**
Wisconsin spaces horny Virginia into Maryland
which slave states States States


family hope there to draw the Army of the Potomac
liver so powerful to it bad to change
changes radically likelihood
and so
battle occurred Pennsylvania
ranging these 2 army battle last 3 days


severe back to the Confederacy
what is the charge and Lee
Lee’s army comes out of that battle badly wounded
where is casualties difficulty higher proportion
does suffer is it the battle that the other
that legal to 51 if you’d make different decisions well that is
is certainly one point of view


lead pencil third day of Gettysburg to do something that was
likely to succeed frontal
charge across a large pizza open field
entrenched opponents this kind of things sometimes
rarely succeed certainly argument
second in command James Longstreet are doing it


infected the whole battle with steak
tactical offensive formations have found the way
self defense is elsewhere
health force acting over open
so yes this is often cited as a serious error
pardon after work LeAnn self pics
responsibility for adults


in the meantime of this battle having been lost a man
and in the end the Southern forces feeling to make their games is it
is it is it is it understood by the Union that the what what’s but their own
advantages now understanding the importance of the victory at that time
Union Morales very low
prior to that paddle as a result of
the series of the fish that has suffered a fleece pants


local news
House of Leaves electrified
races lyrics Ematic pics of Confederacy
longer period absorb just how serious
losses and effects what
so is this
is this a pivotal moment for the Civil War little moments in


least once more Robert E Lee will never
never be strong enough after the loss of he suffers here
proximately yesterday at mans house
at the start never be strong enough to go on
what school district will never Londres
territory will live to rise
simply to the Union Army who are they


hotels more often to take the chicken
what this is not the end of the war
this is not the beginning of the end of the Confederate Lee still have
who wins this war simpli5 sauce
patient appointment
back fat
so this is a float River SC has serious impact


lease pacity as a commander
quite a long time after
what talking with University of Illinois history history professor Bruce Levine
about the Gettysburg Address in the Battle of Gettysburg in the Civil War
150 years ago tomorrow will be the anniversary of the Gettysburg Address
address let’s take another phone call I want to say hello to David from Urbana online 1


good morning in focus on 150 with comment
up on the effect from current popular opinion of
the War of the southern revisionist historian
Dorian put the late 19th in the first half of the 20th
century is it still on important
portent I’m afraid it is um and not only
southern version Mac Mini North Korea


things without you so for clarification fake
according to that use of war
what really about slavery at all I ever had about slavery end
rather out about states rights
jealousy calculations on both sides
Solon finally
XS was the war with the fact


side on your back
lasted from the late 19th century
virtually into the 1953 Leone
the scholarship of the 1950s
popular opinion of the Civil Rights Act of
gas station of the world


fly but we still see the after effect in popular
Hmong public concerning the cause of the Civil War
chardee of Americans as a whole
iPad slavery was the central cause of warts
worse does 30 years
slavery was the central close the war


so we still wrestling with a misunderstanding
thank you thank you very much for calling David and it probably doesn’t
what doesnt help than that of documents like the Gettysburg Address don’t mention
in the slavery question directly in Factor
going by district raising the Gettysburg Address doesn’t mention weather
weather the war dead the Lincoln is referring to are on the Union soldiers


are soldiers on both sides is it
set something that’s been on thats that some people live in a different ways over the years
I’m sure the audience at Gettysburg do what he was talking about
well I think the emphasis was on the sacrifices made
after all of this is a speech
exercising the cause of preserving the Union I’m not safe to find
course of the cause of Social Security part sew in


Lincoln doesn’t say I’m talking on the soldiers I think it’s pretty cool
pretty clear that that’s what primarily there no Confederate troops bear
who is buried at Gettysburg you know I actually don’t know the answer
questions that there are hardly imagine if you could not be
ok I was wondering
also as we were talking about and you were mentioned in the eye
what are the reasons that President Lincoln moved away from the idea of c**


call of colonizing on African Americans elsewhere was the one reason why
fighting in the war effort were there African Americans fighting at Gettysburg
no they were not this is not one of the major
battles African American soldiers
become more and more important to the war effort 1860
4&a specially at the final confrontation
the same two armies in around Richmond and Peters


Petersburg size of a proportion
okay I understand I was just just been able to dip a little bit into your most
most recent book but the of the Confederacy was also looking at the using
African American troops did they ever go that far will they refuse to do so
fight song
my health stills for the Confederacy
military age white men


refuse to do so because they are waiting for the preserve slavery
and that the idea of black interior
Central Park African American slaves
Secretary of War on its side
we can’t Lifehouse everything
Alucard Asian
however 5 November of 1864 becomes so tired


Jefferson Davis about face
hour and then start talking about offering Freedom 2
black man to fight for the Confederacy
steps of firestorm of controversy in the Confederacy
precisely on the same grounds that the
refuse to consider this idea all along
Army Reserves talking about


in order to win victory what’s the point
victory if we lose everything back with fighting 41st
first place watering down
post legislation very happy
get passed at the last minute which Actually
not offer free and does not compel
any slaves simply loud with Sept


Emily slave that a slave owner chooses
emancipate and hand over to the Confederacy
and the end result is acetic lease Mall
well I’m one
I’m wondering when looking at it being very clear during the war what does what’s the issues
shoes of the Civil War and the succession were about when did the revisionist
Asian ISM start in the idea that this was strictly on Mars


mostly a state’s rights battle win the winds that start to Br
brq TX Confederate start to make this argument relatively soon
recognizing that slavery as now
how to become something virtually universally
excoriated I rather Schrute calculations made
if you want to honor the cause of the Confederacy
not to buy it as a last


slavery ship the grounds on which your
aging sew a hole
host of X Confederate officers exempt property around
comes to centralize the Sun
junior size as much
accept that the second half of the 19th century is a period of growing races
racism in the United States and eating the transatlantic world DIC


fighting a war for the sake of African American
even in park the climb
popularity rather striking in the north
so by the end of the 19th century Korean school
talking about slavery
war and that’s an idea that sticks around for
infer for quite a while and afraid that’s all the time we have a very interesting ID


ideas to ponder as we come to the anniversary 150th anniversary
history of Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address of vigil for the eyes
River Street begin at 7 tonight at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
library and museum I think status offense Bruce Levine of the University of Illinois
Illinois for speaking with us today on focus
and this is focus on will