Mid-American Gardener: radishes, pruning roses, black walnut trees, true yams pinewood nematodes

February 27, 2014

Horticulture expert Dianne Noland, special guest panelists Chuck Voigt, Nancy Pataky and David Robson discuss maximizing our radish crops, the best time to prune roses this year, starting an organic garden, how to check foliage for diseases and how black walnut tree roots produce a chemical that keep vegetable gardens from growing. Chuck Voigt shows a beautiful true yam and explaines that the yam is not only the #3 root crop but its also poisonous. It seems that the cyanide within the yam needs to be cooked out of it to be safe. Nancy Pataky demonstrated how to root out the pesky pinewood nematode and what your pine may look like when infected plus much much more.

>> HELLO GARDENER’S.
WE ARE HAPPY THAT YOU JOINED US.
WE ARE HERE AT “MID-AMERICAN
GARDENER.”
WE ARE GOING TO TALK ABOUT
SPRING THINGS.
MY NAME IS DIANNE NOLAND AND I
TEACH HORTICULTURE IN THE CROP
AND SCIENCES DEPARTMENT AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS.
WE HAVE SOME GREAT FOLKS HERE
AND I WANT TO INTRODUCE THEM.
LET’S START FIRST WITH CHUCK
VOIGHT.
>> I’M WITH THE CROP SCIENCES AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS.
MY SPECIALTY IS VEGETABLES
AND/OR HERBS.
TONIGHT, IN THE INTEREST OF
CLARIFYING THINGS, I HAVE
BROUGHT A TRUE YAM.
SOMEHOW, SWEET POTATOES GOT TO
BE CALLED YAMS TO DISTINGUISH
FROM THE FLESH COLORED.
THIS IS A TRUE YAM AND MONOCOT
AND NOT LIKE A DICOT AND THEY
ARE RELATED AT ALL.
I THINK THEY ORIGINATED IN
AFRICA.
THESE CAN GET HUGE AND SEVEN
FEET LONG AND 150 POUNDS AND
THEY ARE CHOPPED UP AND SOLD IN
PIECES.
ANOTHER INTERESTING THING IS
THEY ARE POISONOUS.
THEY HAVE CYANIDE IN THEM AND
NEED TO BE COOKED.
YOU CAN EAT THE TRADITIONAL
SWEET POTATOES OR THE SWEET
POTATOES THAT ARE MASQUERADING
AS YAMS.
>> I DIDN’T REALIZE THE
POISONOUS AND THE COOKED PART.
>> THIS ONE IS POISONOUS AND IT
IS THE SAME SHAPE AND LOOKS LIKE
THE SWEET POTATOES, BUT IT GETS
A BARK ON THE OUTSIDE.
>> THEY ARE THE NUMBER ONE SWEET
CROP.
>> THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
LET’S GO TO NANCY.
>> I’M A PLANT PATHOLOGIST AND
DONE A LOT OF WORK IN
DIAGNOSTICS.
YOU MAY HAVE NOTICE IN SOMEONE
ELSE’S YARD OR YOURS.
THERE IS A LOT OF DEAD PINES OUT
THERE RIGHT NOW.
THAT IN ITSELF CAN BE CONFUSING
TO PEOPLE.
MAKE SURE YOU HAVE A PINE,
BECAUSE THE PROBLEM THAT I’M
GOING TO TALK ABOUT TODAY IS
ONLY ON PINES.
AND TO MAKE IT SIMPLER, IT
DOESN’T OCCUR ON WHITE PINES.
THIS IS A SCOTCH FROM A WHITE
PINE THAT ALREADY DIED,
PROBABLY, IN THE PAST FEW
MONTHS.
TO TEST, YOU NEED A BRANCH AS
BIG AS YOU SEE HERE.
I DON’T KNOW, AS BIG AS MY
WRIST.
THE LAB THAT YOU ARE GOING TO
SEND IT TO, IS GOING TO TAKE
CUTS ACROSS AND LITTLE DIPS AND
SOAK IT IN WATER.
AND THE DISEASE THAT HAS THIS IS
GOING TO COME OUT IN THE WATER.
THE BACKGROUND IS BROWN AND THEY
ARE THE SAME KINDS OF TREES.
IF YOUR TREE IS BROWN, IT IS NOT
COMING BACK.
IF YOUR TREE IS LIGHT TREE, YOU
DON’T HAVE TO GET RID OF IT.
THIS IS MY TREE AND WE JUST HAD
IT REMOVED BECAUSE THE BEATLE
THAT SPREAD THIS NEMATODE CAME
OUT.
>> I KNOW THEY COME OUT IN THE
FIREWOOD.
>> YEAH, WHEN IT IS STACKED UP.
IT IS QUESTIONABLE.
>> GET RID OF IT.
>> IT IS NOT COMPLICATED.
>> THANK YOU, NANCY.
NOW, LET’S GO TO DAVID ROBSON.
>> I’M DAVID ROBSON AND I WORK
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
AND A TREE AND SHRUB SPECIALIST.
MY QUESTION IS WITH A BLACK
WALNUT TREE AND NOTHING BEING
PRODUCED.
HE ASKED IF THERE IS A WAY TO
OVERCOME THIS PROBLEM.
A FRIEND SAID TO ADD LIMESTONE
AND SAID THAT WOULD FIX IT.
HE IS SOMEWHAT SKEPTICAL ABOUT
THAT ADVICE.
I WOULD SAY HE IS CORRECT.
BLACK WALNUT TREE PRODUCE JUG
LOAD, WHICH IS A CHEMICAL THAT
PREVENTS MANY PLANTS FROM
GROWING.
ESPECIALLY, THE PEPPERS AND
EGGPLANTS.
IT DOESN’T HAPPEN THAT MUCH ON
THE MONO COT.
THE CHEMICAL IS GOING TO STAY IN
THE SOIL AFTER THE TREE HAS BEEN
CUT DOWN FOR 5-10 YEARS AFTER
THE ROOTS ARE ROOTING.
IT IS ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE AFTER
REMOVING THE TREE TO GET THE
SOIL BACK TO THE WAY THAT YOU
WANT IT.
THERE ARE WALNUTS THAT ARE
AFFECTED BY THIS.
IF YOU WANT TO PREVENT THAT, YOU
WANT TO HAVE A RAISED BED AND
MAKE SURE THAT IT IS NOT COMING
INTO THAT NICE, LOOSE SOIL.
AND PREVENTS THE LEAVES FROM
GETTING THE CHEMICAL.
IT WILL GET INTO THE BARK, THE
LEAVES, AND THE SHELL ITSELF.
UNFORTUNATELY, IT DOES A LOT OF
DAMAGE TO OUR VEGETABLES.
>> I THINK THAT SUMS IT UP,
DOESN’T IT?
5 TO 10 YEARS.
>> YOU CAN FIND A LIST OF PLANTS
THAT ARE AFFECTED OR NOT
AFFECTED ON THE INTERNET.
>> YES, IT DOESN’T FEEL
THREATENED.
>> YEAH, THAT’S TRUE.
OKAY, VERY GOOD.
THANK YOU, PANELISTS.
AND NOW, WE ARE GOING TO GO TO A
SPECIAL “DID YOU KNOW.”
\M\M
>> AH, SPRING.
OKAY, LET’S GO TO THE PHONE.
LINES AND WE ARE GOING TO START
FIRST WITH KEN ON LINE ONE AND
IT IS A QUESTION ABOUT RADISHES.
>> EVERY YEAR I PLANT RADISHES
AND I GET BIG HOPS ON THEM, BUT
NOTHING ON THE BOTTOM.
WHAT AM I DOING WRONG?
>> TIMING IS USUALLY THE ISSUE.
ALSO, THE VARIETY CAN BE AN
ISSUE, AS WELL.
SOME OF THE LARGER TYPES DON’T
LIKE THE DAY LENGTH IN THE
SPRING.
I KNOW THE FALL RADISH ONLY, IF
YOU PLANT IT IN THE SPRING, IT
SHOOTS UP TOPS.
CHERRY BELL AND SOME OF THOSE,
USUALLY, THEY DO RELATIVELY
WELL.
THEY PREFER TO HAVE COOL WEATHER
AND NOT HAVE MOISTURE STRESS.
DON’T PLANT THEM TOO QUICKLY.
THE BEST RADISHES THAT I GREW
ARE ABOUT A FOOT APART AND
WITHIN A WEEK, THEY ARE THE MOST
BEAUTIFUL RADISHES THAT YOU HAVE
EVER SEEN.
DON’T PLANT A VARIETY THAT IS
SUITED TO BE IN THE SPRING AND
HOPEFULLY, THAT WILL GET YOU IN
THE VICINITY.
>> IF YOU PUT TOO MUCH
FERTILIZER ON IT, COULD IT GET
TOO MUCH GROWTH?
>> YEAH, YOU CAN PROBABLY CUT
BACK ON THE NITROGEN.
JUST DO A BLANKET OF THE BALANCE
FERTILIZER ON IT.
>> LAST YEAR WAS ROUGH FOR
RADISHES, I KNOW IT GOT A LITTLE
TOO WARM TOO FAST.
>> TWO YEARS.
>> I KNOW THAT WE HAD A QUESTION
A COUPLE YEARS BACK.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR QUESTIONS.
WE ARE GOING TO GO TO LINE TWO
NOW WITH MARTHA AND A QUESTION
ABOUT HOUSE PLANTS.
>>  DO YOU KNOW WHERE I CAN GET
A BEGONIA HOUSE PLANT?
I HAVE LOOKED AT ALL OF THE
FLORISTS AND NO ONE KNOWS WHAT
IT IS.
>> IT IS LIKE THE REX BEGONIA
AND HAS THE SHINY LEAF TO IT.
>> YEAH.
>> THAT’S THE DESCRIPTION OF IT.
WHERE TO GET IT?
I WOULD SAY, TRY GARDEN CENTER’S
NURSERY.
EVERY WEEK THEY HAVE DELIVERIES
FROM FLORIDA AND THEY MIGHT BE
ABLE TO GET ONE SPECIFICALLY.
I’M OF THE TYPE, I DON’T CARE IF
YOU DON’T HAVE IT, I WANT YOU TO
GET IT FOR ME.
>> THERE’S A TECHNIQUE RIGHT
THERE.
AND MAYBE, A GARDEN CLUB TOO.
>> THAT’S WHAT I WAS THINKING
AND WHEN I WAS YOUNGER, THERE
WERE PASS ALONG PLANTS AND THE
NEIGHBOR WOULD HAVE IT AND YOU
GET A START.
>> AND THE STARTLING.
>> YEAH, YOU BREAK IT OFF AND
STICK IT IN SOIL AND IT IS
GREAT.
>> MARTHA, THERE’S AN IDEA FOR
YOU.
SAY, I WANT IT, DO YOU HAVE AN
IDEA WHERE I CAN GET IT AND ASK
SOME GARDEN CENTER FRIENDS.
NEXT QUESTION, BARB ON LINE
THREE.
>> I HAVE A DOGWOOD AND IT IS
ABOUT 15 YEARS OLD.
LAST YEAR IN THE BEGINNING OF
SPRING, THERE WERE SOME BRANCHES
THAT DIDN’T GET ANY BLOOMS ON
IT.
I’M WONDERING IF I SHOULD HAVE
LEFT THE BRANCHES ON OR TAKEN
THEM OFF?
>> I THINK THAT TWO YEARS AGO,
WE HAD THE MOST SEVERE DRAUGHTS
THAT WE HAVE EVER HAD IN THIS
PART OF THE COUNTRY.
FLOWERING DOGWOOD IS SUSCEPTIBLE
TO THAT.
MAYBE, IT DIDN’T HAVE THE POWER
TO BLOOM AND SURVIVE.
I THINK THAT THIS SUMMER, IT IS
GOING TO BE SET-UP TO DO BETTER.
YOU CAN LOOK NOW AND SEE THE
LITTLE TURBINE-SHAPED FLOWER
BEDS AND THEY SHOULD BE THERE.
>> THEY MAY HAVE BEEN STRESSED
AND NOT MAKE IT THROUGH THIS
WINTER.
YOU DID THE RIGHT THING AND
SHOULDN’T HAVE CUT THE THEM OFF.
>> THEY GET CRISP AND DRY WHEN
THEY ARE DEAD AND YOU CAN ALMOST
SNAP THEM OFF WITHOUT USING
PRUNING SHEARS AND GET A GOOD
RESULT.
>> AFTER THIS WINTER, THEY MAY
LOOK MARGINALLY, AS WELL.
THEY ARE ONE OF THE PLANTS AND
WHEN IT GETS DOWN TO 20 DEGREES
AND IF IT IS BLACK ON THE INSIDE
OF THE BARK, AND NOT GREEN
GROWTH.
>> DON’T GET DISCOURAGED.
>> THE KOUSA DOGWOOD.
>> I LIKE THAT DOGWOOD.
NOW, LET’S GO BACK TO THE
PANELISTS AND DO SOME EMAILS.
I’M GOING TO START WITH YOU,
CHUCK.
>> THIS IS A QUESTION AND WE ARE
NOT THERE YET, BUT HOPEFULLY, WE
ARE GOING TO BE THERE SOME DAY.
A PERSON FROM AURORA, ILLINOIS
WHO WANTS TO START AN ORGANIC
GARDEN.
SHE HAS TALKED ABOUT STARTING IT
FOR THREE YEARS AND DOESN’T WANT
TO GO FOUR YEARS WITHOUT GETTING
IT GOING.
NOT TO BE SELF-SERVING…
>> THERE IS A GREAT BOOK THAT I
KNOW ABOUT.
>> I HAVE A BOOK AND IT IS
CALLED “VEGETABLE GARDENING IN
THE MIDWEST”.
IT IS NOT ORGANIC, BUT NOT
SPECIFICALLY CONVENTIONAL.
THERE IS A LOT OF GREAT
INFORMATION IN THAT.
IF YOU CAN FIND THAT AND ALSO
GET ONE GOOD ORGANIC VEGETABLE
GARDENING BOOK AND NOT BE
CONFUSED BY ANYTHING ELSE.
THAT WILL DO IT.
I DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU ARE
STARTING WITH.
IF YOU ARE STARTING WITH SOD AND
A LAWN.
YOU MIGHT TRY A LASAGNA GARDEN
AND PLANT THROUGH THE DIFFERENT
LAYERS OF MULCH AND DO IT THAT
WAY.
ANOTHER BOOK, ONE OF THE OLD
RUTH STOUT —
>> OH, YEAH!
>> SHE WAS AN OLD CHARACTER IN
NEW ENGLAND AND KEPT LOTS AND
LOTS OF MULCH AND PULLED IT BACK
WHEN SHE STARTED PLANTING.
YOU CAN BUILD A RAISED BED AND
DOUBLE DIG IT.
THERE ARE LOTS OF WAYS TO GET
STARTED.
IT SOUNDS LIKE THE LEAST AMOUNT
OF WORK WOULD BE A BIT OF A GAIN
WHEN YOU STARTED.
>> START SMALL.
>> EVEN IF IT IS JUST A TOMATO
PLANT.
>> EXACTLY.
>> AND SOME PEPPERS AND LETTUCES
FILLING IN.
START WITH SOMETHING AND GO FROM
THERE.
>> I HAD A FRIEND THAT PUT HIS
IN THE WAGON AND WHEN IT GOT
COLD, THE WAGON CAME IN THE
HOUSE AND WENT BACK OUT.
I THOUGHT THAT WAS A REALLY GOOD
IDEA.
>> REMEMBER, GRANDPA RUSSIA AND
HIS FROZE.
>> A PICK-UP TRUCK WITH A WAGON
IN THE BACK, BUT THE WAGON IS
SMALLER.
LET’S GO TO NANCY, WHAT DO YOU
HAVE?
>> I HAVE A PERSON HERE IN TOWER
HILL WHO IS HAVING PROBLEMS WITH
TREES.
THERE ARE PICTURES OF TWO TREES
AND SPOTS OF FOLIAGE WITH THE
YOUNGER IN THE TOP.
THIS IS HOW THE OLDER TREES
STARTED TO LOOK IN THE LAST TWO
TO THREE YEARS AND GETTING
PROGRESSIVELY WORSE EACH YEAR.
CAN YOU EXPLAIN WHAT IS
HAPPENING?
I CAN’T EXPLAIN, BUT SAY WHAT I
THINK IS HAPPENING.
THERE IS SECTION OF TREES THAT
CAN HAVE DAMAGE AND CAUSES THEM
TO BE DEAD.
IT CAN BE ANYTHING LIKE ROOTS
AND CHEMICALS AND UNFORTUNATELY,
WHAT I THINK THAT THIS COULD BE
IS A DISEASE CALLED VERTICILLIUM
WILT.
IT IS GOING TO BE STREAKED WITH
DARK GREEN AND WHITE, IF IT HAS
VERTICILLIUM WILT.
THERE IS NOTHING THAT YOU CAN DO
TO SAVE THE TREES, THEY ARE
GOING TO PROBABLY END UP DYING.
THE BEST THING THAT YOU CAN DO
TO YOUR ABILITY IS WATER THE
TREES.
SOMETIMES, THE TREES CAN OUT
GROW THIS DISEASE.
DON’T COUNT ON IT.
IF IT IS OUT IN A FARMLAND AREA,
AND THAT LOOKS LIKE THAT’S THE
CASE, YOU CAN TRY AND FERTILIZE
IT.
THAT’S A CHEAP WAY TO DEAL WITH
IT.
>> HOPEFULLY, IT CAN OUT GROW
IT.
THANK YOU, NANCY.
DAVID?
>> THIS IS SOMETHING THAT
EVERYONE IS GOING TO HAVE THIS
SPRING OR HAD IN SPRING AND THIS
PERSON HAS DARK BLUE VIOLETS.
IF YOU WANT A PURE STRAND OF
GRASS, YOU ARE GOING TO LOOK AT
VIOLETS THAT IS PROBLEMATIC.
VIOLETS APPEAR IN THE GRASS
BECAUSE THE VIOLETS ARE NOT
ACTUALLY GROWING.
THERE ARE SOME CHEMICALS THAT
YOU CAN USE, BUT THE TOUGHEST
ONES THAT DO THE BEST JOB DAMAGE
THE TREES AND SHRUBS.
SO, LOOK AT THE LABEL.
I WOULD PLANT IN THE FALL.
FERTILIZER IN SEPTEMBER AND
RIGHT AROUND CHRISTMAS TIME AND
FERTILIZE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE TO
CHOKE OUT THE VIOLETS.
>> NOT ENOUGH.
>> CHUCK SAYS, NOT ENOUGH.
IF YOU HAVE A LOT OF VIOLETS AND
YOU MAY CONSIDER KILLING THE
WHOLE LAWN AND START OVER.
SOME OF US SAY, I’M HAPPY WITH
VIOLETS IN MY LAWN.
>> I COLLECT VIOLETS.
>> THEY ARE USUALLY IN THE
SHADED AREAS.
>> THEY LOVE SHADED AREAS.
>> ONCE AGAIN, THEY LIKE IT
WHERE IT IS THINNED OUT.
>> YOU CAN GET GRECO AND WHITE
ONES.
ANYWAY, I WON’T GET STARTED.
WE HAVE CAROL ON LINE ONE.
>> I HAVE ROSES AND I KNOW THEY
NEED TO BE PRUNED DOWN TO 4 TO 5
FEET.
WHAT HEN PUSHERS SHOULD I BE
LOOKING FOR?
>> SO, WHAT TIME TO PRUNE THE
ROSES?
>> RIGHT.
>> I WOULD SAY A WEEK BEFORE
THEY BUD OUT.
THE END OF MARCH, FIRST OF
APRIL, PROBABLY.
>> THIS YEAR, I MIGHT WAIT UNTIL
THEY BUD OUT TO SEE HOW MUCH IS
DEAD.
>> THAT’S TRUE.
>> I WOULD PROBABLY WAIT A
LITTLE BIT MORE THIS YEAR.
>> EASTER TIME?
>> PROBABLY, MID APRIL.
>> WHEN IS APRIL THIS YEAR?
>> THE THIRD WEEK OR SO IN
APRIL.
THAT’S NORMALLY WHEN YOU WOULD
DO IT, BUT THIS YEAR, I THINK
THAT IT IS GOING TO BE COLDER
LATER.
BE PREPARED AND YOU ARE GOING TO
TRIM BACK A LITTLE BIT BEYOND
THE DIEBACK.
>> AND YOU HAVE A LITTLE BIT.
>>  BUT DON’T GO EARLY.
>> AND MAKE SURE THAT THE
PRUNERS ARE SHARP.
>> AND CLEAN.
AND NEXT QUESTION ONLINE FIVE.
>> I HAVE A QUESTION, ABOUT A
YEAR AGO, WE HAD A LARGE MAPLE
TREE AND I’M WONDERING HOW CLOSE
CAN WE PLANT THE NEW TREE TO
THIS MAPLE TREE THAT WAS MOVED?
>> OKAY.
>> WAS THE MAPLE TREE THAT WAS
REMOVED DEAD?
>> IT WAS GETTING RATHER LARGE
AND THERE WERE SOME DEAD PARTS
ON IT.
>> THERE’S NOT REALLY ANY RULE
OF THUMB ON THAT.
IT IS GOING TO TAKE YEARS FOR
THE ROOTS ON THE TREE THAT YOU
REMOVED TO DETERIORATE.
IF THEY HAVE SOME SORT OF FUNGUS
GROWING ON THEM AND YOU PLANT A
TREE NEAR THEM, THE FUNGUS COULD
GO TO THAT TREE, BUT I DON’T
KNOW, IF IT MAKES THAT MUCH
DIFFERENCE.
>> I WOULD PLANT A NON-MAPLE.
>> YEAH, A NON-MAPLE.
>> AND YOU CAN HAVE THE TRUNK
REMOVED.
>> AND PLANT A SMALLER TREE.
>> AND LOOK WHERE THE MAIN ROOTS
ARE AND PLANT BETWEEN THEM
BECAUSE THAT’S THE ONLY PLACE
THAT YOU ARE GOING TO BE ABLE TO
DIG A HOLE.
>> YOU SAID YOU WANTED TO PUT
ANOTHER MAPLE IN THERE, BUT I
WOULD AGREE, IT’S NOT A GOOD
IDEA.
>> ESPECIALLY, IF WE DON’T KNOW
IF THE TREE IS DISEASED AND THAT
COULD BE A LITTLE INTENSE.
THANK YOU FOR THE QUESTIONS, AND
WE APPRECIATE IT.
IT IS ALWAYS FUN TO TALK ABOUT
GARDENING.
WE WANT TO WISH TREVOR BEST
WISHES.
WE HAVE A PERSON THAT IS LEAVING
US AND WE HOPE THAT YOU GET OUT
LOOKING AT THE GARDEN AND TRYING
TO VISUAL SPRING AND HAVE A
GREAT WEEK GARDENING.
THANK YOU EVERYONE.
BYE-BYE.
\M\M

Air Dates and Times

Channel Day Time
WILL-TV, Urbana Thursdays 7 pm (live)
  Saturdays 11 am (repeat)
WTVP-TV, Peoria Saturdays 10:30 am
WEIU-TV, Charleston Sundays 4:30 pm
WILL-AM/90.9 HD2 & HD3, Urbana Saturdays 6:30 am
WSEC-TV, Springfield Saturdays 11 am
WQEC-TV, Quincy Saturdays 11 am
WMEC-TV, Macomb Saturdays 11 am
WYCC-TV, Chicago Wednesdays 1 pm

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