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Storm Kings

Have you ever been through a tornado?

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(Duration: 50:54)

Meteorologist Jeffrey Frame

Meteorologist Jeffrey Frame

When severe weather happens, most of us take shelter. There are a few who don’t. Jeffrey Frame is one of them. He’s a clinical assistant professor of atmosphere sciences at the University of Illinois and is also a storm chaser. He says when he sees a tornado there’s an incredible moment of adrenaline, followed quickly by fear.

Over the course of the last 200 years, storm chasers and meteorologists like Frame have been largely responsible for collecting the information that informs our knowledge of severe weather.

This hour on Focus, Lindsey Moon talks Frame about the risk he takes for science. We'll also hear from Lee Sandlin about his book “Storm Kings: America’s First Tornado Chasers." 

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    00:00:00


    in his book Storm King America’s First 2002 Sears lease and wind give the sand
    the American history of storm chasing the says when settlers first encounter tornadoes
    they had no idea what they were seeing someone to talk about the beginnings of 20 casein you really
    really talking about a guy on horseback riding along side the small the sower on focus
    KSOL talk with you about our first encounters with tornadoes and about the scientist who made it

    00:00:30

    mission to understand then I’ll talk with Jeffrey Freeman atmospheric science
    scientist you have been chasing hernias in 2004 the scientist he says there’s something new
    the storm chaser says he seduced by the adrenaline
    turned off on the side road came over the cylinders is Big Town tornado sitting there
    probably 45 miles away idea was there I’m in the moon
    that’s coming up on focus after this news good
    good morning welcome to focus on when the moon a tornado is a violently rotating column of air that

    00:01:05

    what comes in contact with the ground is the thing on every continent except Antarctica Anderson
    very is measured on a scale of 1 to 5 I looked it up on google it was pretty easy information
    information to find after release and wins bookstore in Kings America’s first tornado
    chasers I feel lucky to be able to have easy access to information on American soil
    consolers first encounter tornadoes airboat intrigue and horrified by the storm
    I have no idea what they were the Sandlin right in his book store in Kings it was early America
    Americans who started moving to the Midwest and became interested in tornadoes form prediction in the closet

    00:01:40

    the causes of severe wins on the Prairie WI Sandlin joints me now to talk about tornadoes in our history
    history with them from Kings now in paperback Lee welcome to focus
    I want to start out at the very beginning Ben Franklin play the role in the store
    industry like he doesn’t need to do with at beginnings of research about science can you tell me about
    about how he contribute to Charlie research about tornadoes important
    porn for two reasons for purely scientific reason which is he was the first
    the first person to try in your eyes how tornadoes Overland work

    00:02:15

    people know about waterspouts a sailor’s hat seen them travelers in the trap
    tropics it in the b*** weather to the words similar farms Overland was
    was when he was writing still kind of a I’m a matter of up selling
    extremely important for the first scientific search for 20
    so in a strange way the first tornado chaser I found in his course
    correspondence letter where are described scene with small tornado
    form while riding through the country in countryside Maryland

    00:02:50

    and he wrote after it on horseback so when you talk about the beginnings of 20
    chasing you really talking about a guy on horseback riding along side the small funnel
    when is lottery claim the last the final with his riding crop to see if you get this
    get the final break up with him it was around the time
    looking into if the water south exit on when did we get the word 28
    tornado 2013 being used where does that word come from older work
    word which is Wizard of Oz the word for the head of the something to do to apply

    00:03:25

    apply it to a $20 were the chosen in England in English
    in the beginning of the seventeenth century is the term for storm at sea
    see it did not mean at that point what we think of is a tornado
    tapirs to amend to the sailors to the term for when driving
    country directions thing is that up Franklin
    is letters said that he called what he was looking for land spout
    out by melody with water spouts and he said I’m specifically not

    00:04:00

    not talking about tornado because he thought tornadoes and mend this kind of
    little whirlwind see and not what we think of now
    so the term kind of floating around in front of the peculiar about doing research
    search on the subject is that it wasnt really until the middle of the 19th century
    the term got properly for fixed to what we think of tornadoes
    is all crimes words to describe what does the parking
    Kames the call the movie 12 Gales the coldest wind storms

    00:04:35

    um so when you’re reading research in the early records weather
    very hard to know what they were talking about I think it’s interesting you mention at 20
    2800 with curly word to describe the direction of wins as we get a little bit further along
    how long is progression of what we know about pretty is there was a lot of controversy about how the wind movie
    how that create a tornado can you tell me about that yeah during the early 19th century
    feud violence in Santa Fe fisticuffs but the
    impassioned feud between to the leading scientist Sun weather in America

    00:05:10

    over the nature of what the the wind did the tornado the leading expert
    f*** that the one with the surrounding air was drawn into a tornado and went straight up
    laid off without rotating and his opponent thought the tornado
    rotated but the air to rise so they were is partially right hand purse
    impartially wrong and their fight with so um
    sewing Passion Pit divided up the entire scientific community in America
    Erica from Sydney with paralyzed American meteorology for the better part of a generation

    00:05:45

    the to f*** that you mentioned got involved that was the storm or after
    New Year’s and James Espeon William Bradford with the 29 to see you talking about
    really does play a large role in beginning urology in United States Yahoo
    yeah it was a brilliant man he was the first person really understand the nature of
    convection which is a core scientific principle in meteorology you can’t
    can’t understand the action of the atmosphere without it showing that since Ohlone should be remembered
    but on the other hand he was also a man who will win the presidency

    00:06:20

    can someone sign test for this but he simply had no interest in listening to people
    agreed with them so in the case of tornadoes he had the
    insight as to what they were which was the rise in column A Bear police
    used to believe that can rotate in fact when people would say I saw it
    and I saw the wind Spenny tell them that they were wrong who winded me c**
    we come to agreement attorneys do actually rotate and the fact is the winter movie
    rotation of the core defining well it was what is

    00:06:55

    what happened is that as others studies when Im more MORE
    one more direct observation of 2828
    2800 of the Passover Philadelphia actually around the middle of the 19th century
    and a large group of scientists other people interesting Weather Watch
    what is happening from the roof of the University in the clearly saw that the final
    was rising and was also rotating and so it seems like that
    finally became minutes capable what the nature of a tornado watch

    00:07:30

    was and there was a man named up
    how many morning Ferrell actually was the first person to work out the physics of it
    exactly wrong but it was right and mouth
    so that was able to spark on a is the sudden resurgence
    research on tornadoes so that was really where we begin to get the modern state of Israel
    the second of the 19th century so when William Fairland does enter the picture
    rollin research into tornadoes in part because of the Civil War

    00:08:05

    after the Civil War when a lot of people started homestead and move to the American Midwest on the Prairie is win
    is when there was a lot of attention again being paid to tornadoes wind
    settlers got to the Midwest what did the Native Americans tell them about the storm
    because with this at the time when the Native Americans were given by step
    The Settlers of that wasn’t on extended period when they were willing to do with the world
    what is a while before they really realize that the settlers were up to theta
    they told someone a practical knowledge of tornadoes

    00:08:40

    a lot of really horrible advice they told the settlers
    to build their there villages at the junction of rivers because they said 20
    20 discount talk Crosswater which is completely fall um b***
    what is the beginning of bad tornado advice which is something
    continue through to this day is there any information that they were given that was useful
    well you know what are the practical things that the Native Americans new with you
    with you was that the best way to take shelter from the tornado when you’re in the open country

    00:09:15

    country with to get is close to the ground as possible and probable preferably do with dick
    ditcher depression in the ground but that was in that still use atrilli
    the best way to survive a tornado open country people of the stadia that they should make for
    furthest things like a freeway overpass is but those are horrible places
    Stride Rite a tornado the best things to get out of your car and look for
    depression is shallow but some kind of fella depression on the ground and lie flat
    misinformation information about tornadoes in a book you also write about winter

    00:09:50

    the settlers were moving to the Queen became quickly annoyed of the storm
    because when they move they haven’t really been informed if you’re going to have to go
    surprise when I saw him and yeah and
    and more than the other problem was that umm the National Weather Service
    did not have a great policy about tornado information
    is there actually tried to avoid talking about tornadoes and Part B
    hard because they were being pressured by the government and the real estate interest not

    00:10:25

    not to talk about tornadoes because the wanted didn’t want to discourage people from buying land
    when did the Prairie season of the mid to late 1800’s yeah all of the Damned
    mention tornadoes begin them but it actually lasted until after world
    World War 2 National Weather Service never predicted 20 years and effect
    after a lot of those years collected no information of tornadoes it all the single Corp
    corpse was one of the group that was actually collecting report about tornadoes when were
    were the actors in collecting nose and what started the federal government interest in

    00:11:00

    trying to forecast for you well this is the only the sense in
    DMV in Back to the early days of the Republic that
    people find weather information valuable but it wasn’t until the arrival of the Telegraph
    system which began in the 1850s
    earlier but it became more of a national network start in the 1850s that
    that became practical to get real time tornado real time weather information and the Smiths
    Smithsonian Institution begin collecting weather data and me

    00:11:35

    making forecast and the civil court upset over after the Civil War
    andis Masonic got out of the weather business for Friday reasons
    looking for a new job after the war was over the
    the for the peacetime occupation and they became became
    name the facto National Weather Service the first wave of it and see
    and so they were collecting information and they have the net worth of telegraph around the country
    trail ready to begin collecting massive amounts of data Andaz Apna collecting

    00:12:10

    electing it began collecting information on violin weather and of course in the Midwest
    left of tornadoes are the frequency current release
    really pretty unusual and um so in the 1870s really was
    what is when they begin systematically trying to figure out how bad tornadoes were and Howell
    what might cause im so that’s when you really find the beginnings of systematic
    study of tornadoes that lasted until they get the Chillrend the end of the night
    end of the 19th century when some of that early research started to be done

    00:12:45

    black talking about when you’re trying to figure out what cause numb what were some of the early series
    well you know that the basic model for tornadoes with
    Wasington fact long was worked up a meterologist like a sphere
    lesbian Redfield we were talking about the understudy in principle the basic mechanism
    tornadoes that it was the question of two air masses hot air from
    hot humid air coming up Gulf of Mexico and Cole dryer
    fire coming from Canada so theres did they didn’t have a

    00:13:20

    have a specific mechanism work out the fog alot of ideas
    which Christensen some of the ideas of the head no friends
    basis persisted for the better part of the century when I was a kid
    I heard that 27 struck off because a vacuum at the corner
    are the formal and is it passes over house the is the pressure inside the house pushes out
    southward into the vacuum and causes the house to explode when I was a kid I was told
    does told people to Portola school the singer supposed to do with open up the windows of the house

    00:13:55

    how steep 10 pressure this is completely fall and
    um is in fact incredibly dangerous to do to waste time
    should be taking shelter open up windows but that was the best advice a head in the 1960s
    60’s and that Siri actually Richmond 1870 s and ending
    never been tested and it never been rejected so bad
    advice before that’s one of the temples of it where I live that was just the Spectre
    speculative notion of the 1870s persisted until recently in the car

    00:14:30

    in the course of your research is there a one piece of information that you are most shocked by
    um I think well in all tell you something I didn’t get into the book
    the book because it just happened last spring but umm when the the Moore
    Oklahoma tornado remember when there was a tree
    extremely destructive tornado and the local weather people are telling people to get in their car
    cars and drive away from it a car is a catastrophically bad place to train
    can write a tornado and it really stoned me that people would be on television

    00:15:05

    vice that that was really just ignoring you responsible
    and so it surprises me really at how little anything is changed
    um presently quite a lot that discovered the Strand
    Midwest talking people but when it is for this book is that
    getting over bills and the new construction no one is to
    is taking the trouble to include any kind of storm shelter on
    and so it feels like we’re going backwards in 20 to prepare

    00:15:40

    interesting that there’s this thing is misinformation because there’s also this pain throughout history
    this research that people are really interested in me stop caring for someone comes along
    blonde takes it back up yeah that’s when we get reinfected um mean revenge
    talking about the modern era between like the 60’s and today has there been at
    Matt urban flow of research in entry well the movie
    huge spike of interest in tornadoes in the last couple of decades NE
    number of of genuine advances in 20 to study

    00:16:15

    and that can be traced one factor specifically and that’s the Advent
    the video camera um because for the first time we have a very
    very large library of tornado images because
    because people for easy to forget that because you can go on YouTube and you can spend
    hours watching tornadoes call is the genre of the sceptical
    the cult p******* um and that’s very new
    renew when I was a kid it was an extremely where them for somebody even have a clear

    00:16:50

    photograph of a tornado they were completely mysterious and now
    we’ve got this this this not as mysterious now because we got
    Scott visual records of themself alot of the original ideas about tornadoes this car
    discarded um and that Spanish lady with huge spike
    I want to revisit when we were talking about that was on the Prairie
    tornadoes I was really fascinated by the description of wind
    wind road in settlers moving out in calorimeter big package

    00:17:25

    the Prairie where the graph with gone yeah and enforce to these long
    long trail 3/4 world the trees in down before
    we need before I just before people knew the dust storms were the reasons for that
    what were some of the reasons to why does exist in the sense that it was clearly something
    quotes by the wind witches weather wind road um but what
    what’s specific way it because the people found completely Mysterio
    . Um this is where the word got the title from the book

    00:18:00

    f*** is that there was a third of folklore creatures called um Storm King
    that they thought it take to seriously but they were you find poems for people wrote about
    about the Storm King was riding through the forest in the Wiz China
    giant horse the tour through the trees that left the trail down um so
    so um so I think it was really um
    this is the thing that people have the sense that the American landscape was very mysterious
    and I took a lot of concerta what’s the weather like in stairs

    00:18:35

    what about tornadoes people still don’t know um so I’ll b***
    when you look back of those times has won t find the beginning of the mystery in the sense that
    something to be song you also right about the early
    tales of work elected where was always someone in a town
    is never really quite got over what happened at the post traumatic stress
    stress disorder but it was the 19th century
    word for stupid things people are surprised by a horse ride by the tornados

    00:19:10

    over the years yeah I think so because of the tornado and less
    you actually see it first hand is the stomach
    level destruction and how fast it happens on em
    and that is something that people work Whitestone
    Midwest and is still really can be quite shocking
    first and is just the way ur destructive power
    of the tornado in a biscut extraordinary Vyalitsyna for small space

    00:19:45

    um that that remains really did it this time
    the thing that lasts about tornadoes in people’s month I was released
    surprised to find out that we didn’t really take tornado prediction seriously until afternoon
    after 1950 yeah yeah well the cilia Hmong the people of Minnesota
    Weather Service was that is impossible to predict a tornadoes path of Exile
    exactly that uh uh a bad forecast was worse than 04
    forecast all and you know this is 220

    00:20:20

    2000 production is still very much
    quite with the word is here its not there really isn’t such a
    such a thing as a tornado prediction now even now you can predict the likely conditions
    missions for tornado but the the possibility of saying that particular storm
    storm cell is going to spawn a tornado in the the next
    next 6 hours is really is still not true weeks still can’t do that
    soul of a prediction really now involves a 20 LB number

    00:20:55

    the ground in predicting work might go as opposed to the storm is going to
    going to perform at a certain point the signal Corp
    were the first one to really started up weather alert system set of flags
    there still confusion today at exist between the difference between a warning and a watch how did the
    the weather forecasting alert develop food came out of the
    this problem I’m talking about which is the difficulty making a specific prediction the idea original
    originally was that if you knew that they were the general conditions existed for $20 like

    00:21:30

    is likely to form wood called out of watch aria and talking about
    talking about how people have had little progress it should be pointed out that those watch
    watch areas are actually extremely well done now
    how is very very rare for $20 Crofts
    the watches which said the conditions are there were tornado quad form
    warnings Richmond to 20 axle on the ground and people Arkansas
    are confused by it and I know that they are numbered meteorologist now you say we really gotta give

    00:22:05

    how to get rid of the system come up with something else that people can really understand because
    because one of the problems that always happens when there’s a tornado is a huge amount of c**
    confusion and which of incomplete affect Alex
    when I first saw the title of the book America’s first tornado chasers I expect a lot more about
    about people actually getting out in a car and driving after 22 the video camera Yahoo
    that does not come until much later in the story then were those first orgy
    looking at hernias well its started as soon as they had

    00:22:40

    bad um some kind of sense of love being able to do it
    court it so that when I come home movies
    start in the 19 fifties and a little later in the 1960’s
    going out with cameras to film by storms today was really the beginnings of it
    the breakthrough with the introduction of Doppler radar what happened to me
    19 seventies when it really became widespread because it was the first time you could use
    use radar to track a tornado on the ground and that was really the first time

    00:23:15

    people going hunting tornadoes were they would be able to know where to look specific
    walking away from the process of rain for talking with people
    Midwest what is the misconception that still exist in the most
    understanding of 20 as well people do have the side ear
    Mansion earlier that the best place to hide from a tornado in the open country is under freeway
    freeway overpass a stress two listeners the horrible place to hide because
    freeway overpass to act like a wind tunnel so it’s at the Wynn can actually speed up

    00:23:50

    opposites passing under the bridge and um so you seen videos
    videos of people having there they were the people who survived books stored Maryland Waukee
    um they’re so that’s one thing the other thing that um
    I keep on hearing from people is like in the southwest corner
    corner of the basement the something that is it around there again from the 19 century
    when I was a kid doesn’t really matter what are the basement is it 10 things that is low
    is little known about tornado fatalities discovered in Alaska

    00:24:25

    almost all the deaths caused by tornadoes a close by flying debris
    and so the best possible thing you can do tornado is imminent
    is to take shelter somewhere where there no windows you want to protect yourself from fun
    Wonder Bread commercial things to remember if your face with a tornado
    when you finish the research for the buck you mention that there were still think that we don’t know about tornadoes what were
    what were some of the questions that you have to dress well is a civic VP Singh is king
    tornado Genesis which is what is Zac trigger mechanism

    00:25:00

    mechanism is the causes a tornado to form and people really surprised to hear
    we still don’t really know what that is and it’s not just we don’t know we never really
    really know I say that I want to stress The Tomorrow of a research
    researcher that the National Service storms laboratory about but its all
    also I dive talk to 22 people who said we may never get to the point
    or we know exactly where the tornado is going to form an exactly why
    thank you very much for taking a few minutes to talk with me about drinking stay in my place

    00:25:35

    the moon sitting in Virgina does and today on focus I’ve been talking with Lee sandwich
    about his book Storm King America’s first 20 chasers we’re going to take a short break
    when we come back I’ll talk with Jeffrey frame clinical assistant professor about the spirit signs
    the University of Illinois he is a storm chaser day without your listening to focus on
    wiol AM 580 welcome back to focus on
    the moon in Virginia does so far this hour we’ve been talking about tornadoes and how we know what we do about
    do about why they happen for the break I was talking with Lee sandwich of the book storm kings

    00:26:10

    America’s first tornado chasers Jeffrey frame clinical assistant professor about missing your ex
    sciences at the University of Illinois who is a strip joint now he’s been chasing severe storms
    internecine 2004 Jeff Wilkins Highland ca thanks for having me on
    thanks for being here today so I’m really are we were talking about tornadoes in a lot about
    how we know we know about them so I guess a good place to start my baby can you tell me meteorologically
    what is a tornado and why did they happen yeah absolutely tornadoes defined as
    find is violently rotating column of air in contact with the ground

    00:26:45

    pendant from a cumulonimbus cloud what does that mean in English well it means a
    is a tornado we have air spinning around a rotating very fast I think most of you probably
    probably knew that but these rotating column very much to send from cumulonimbus
    Olympus Club under storm clouds are informally we call them Thunderhead
    important to know that the tornado is the rotating when did self its not
    not the funnel cloud that you might think of when somebody says tornadoes throat
    rotating winds that actually posted in the closet self how many tornadoes do

    00:27:20

    does do we usually get that touchdown and can be defined as a tree with your Illinois Illinois season
    is an average 3520 does each year SMU that says long term average of courses
    horses some years might be a little more active than and some years might be a little bit more quiet than that
    and we get more tornadoes and some other place is the last Cincinnati Ohio
    example Reithoffer Gampel tornadoes are most common in what we call Tornado Alley the run from
    from roughly from Nebraska down south to Texas from eastern Colorado usual
    usually Easton to Missouri others another maximum in tornado current across the South

    00:27:55

    southeastern US Arkansas Mississippi Alabama places like that that’s taken informal
    formal name Dixie alley over the past couple of years places like the East Coast Inn
    especially the West Coast California Oregon and Washington tornadoes airfare
    Fairly in common but they’re not unheard of actually last Friday night there is a tornado
    Sacramento California wide is the Midwest get more tortillas another right
    right places country really the answer goes back to geography and you think about
    about what are the ingredients you need for a tornado the number one thing you need is warm moist

    00:28:30

    stare at the surface in at warm moist air axis fuel for thunderstorms CA can
    can have a tornado without a thunderstorm BetUS
    amount of instability we call it energy to build up in the atmosphere
    we get these layers of air coming east of the Rocky Mountains in the temperature in those
    airg 33 rapidly with height in that allows the instability really build up
    build up in the atmosphere to some pretty high levels of it like putting apps
    Decathlon the stove and you can have a gradual release of energy

    00:29:05

    don’t try this at home but if you were to take a cork and put it in the spider that tea kettle
    eventually get explosive release of energy and the second ingredients needed
    vertical wind shear in at the change in wind speed for winter rection with
    tight end with a thunderstorm forms in an environment able to talk
    horizontal rotation imagine a rolling pin or something rotating around a horizontal
    Laxus that into the vertical for the entire thunderstorm cloud
    loud starts rotating and these are called supercell thunderstorms

    00:29:40

    forms to look at them on radar they dont look like hurricanes like something you might think
    what they have a distinctive hook shaped echo usually on the southwest
    west corner the third ingredient we need for thunderstorms and tornadoes
    does a trigger how to make deer go up in that can be something like a cold front
    it could be something like a leftover boundary of cold air left over from the previous state storms
    or hospital the dry line which is coming from Kansas to Oklahoma in Texas
    Texas where you get a confluence of warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico in hot dryer

    00:30:15

    coming together for the desert Southwest on the old method warm air plus cold
    tornadoes is your status a myth that were true we were seen a big tornado
    Sunday in the didn’t when temperatures drop 50 to 60 degrees in 24 hour
    24 hours across parts of Texas another part of the country singer sings you mention that cold air
    cold air plus one equal tornado that is what I thought for really long time earlier I was talking
    talking about misconceptions about tornadoes what is the one that you were interned with most of
    post office near ologist what we hear that won a lot folks

    00:30:50

    folks riding sometimes in the medial sable why was there a big tornado outbreak
    no warm air plus cold air equals 20 toes swell when warm and cold
    Kohler meet you get from cold fronts warm fronts in Ocean Beach triggers for Airtel
    where to rise in the atmosphere how far is Apple last November 17th at big tornado watch
    breaker Illinois that was triggered by a cold front that’s not always the case trial
    941 meat warm air can also trigger tornadoes
    talking about this I wish I could see you can you look really excited to YM

    00:31:25

    you’re very passionate dreams you chase storms yourself what does when I go out and chase
    chase storms and not just in it for the tornado its it’s kind of a double edged sword
    what does adrenaline rush looking at a tornado looking at the power of nature as long as you do it
    you do it from St distance I’m not one of these extreme chasers you might hear about
    I’m going right up to it going into a 2000 credible incredibly dangerous
    so you’re able to witness the majesty in the beauty of nature and
    and majesty of the atmosphere which I understand a fairly 5

    00:32:00

    fundamental level down to the mathematical equations of government
    even if you don’t see a tornado these rotating storms called supercells
    cells can be absolutely majestic because the entire cloud road
    rotates hand usually when you see free sample online videos if its a timelapse
    lapse video so it’s a little bit but sometimes the cloud look like a stack of dinner plates
    plates words extreme events like a UFO flying saucer
    I’m up there in the atmosphere only its not aliens its it’s the storm itself

    00:32:35

    imagine a couple different from the book like do all forms of the same no
    storms are kind of like people in a way in it to peoples faces Neverland
    what the same except for twins to storms never look the same
    and when I go online and eye brows pictures of storms ur when I see pictures of store
    storms on television if I seen that storm I can almost instantly recognizable
    recognize it you go out you look at the storms sometimes you can look at a singles
    single storm for a period 5 hours persist if it isn weighted if its slow moving

    00:33:10

    moving talk to to Wii um about the fact that a lot change
    what we know about storms when we can take pictures of them c10 more time looking at them
    umm when you look at a photo of a storm what are you looking for
    tornadoes in Gifford and Brittany date just like one of them looks like its raining
    the other one looks like on a little bit more rain there’s a cloud in an alternator
    don’t really know what do you look for right if you’re looking for store introduce a tornado
    tornado the first thing you would look for is a supercell thunderstorm it’s one of those storms entire cloud

    00:33:45

    louder the entire pluma Frisinger the pizza store
    everything rotates and you can look for the hook shaped signature on radar which tells you
    supercell you can look for rotation on radar hey we have a supercell
    but if that’s super cells to produce a tornado Hot 100 floors level rotation a cloud
    cloud base in offense in most tornadoes form from water called wall cloud
    what a wall cloud is its a lowered cloud down Bonita cloud base
    sometimes wall plugs rotating sometimes they dont off the wall cloud

    00:34:20

    rotating probably isn’t any imminent danger from a tornado
    what is rotating special effects rotating rapidly a tornado conformity
    anytime in 20 does Canada have really really fast we have research
    research Radarsat go out in Coonskin store in every 2 minutes
    even then we say hey you know there’s a lot going on your knees 2 minutes sometimes tornadoes conform
    form within a minute naps what happen in Gifford the atmosphere back on November 17th
    that’s favorable for tornadoes to form out important to know

    00:34:55

    another misconception you can’t tell the strength of a tornado just by looking
    looking at it I know they do that in twister in the movie that came out back in the 90’s all the time
    all the time other lot of it’s a funny movie to watch believe me I love watching that movie
    movie about there a lot of things scientifically wrong with it if you think that’s what store
    Jason’s like its it’s a little bit different than the what is it really like the number
    the number one thing it’s a lot of driving when I go out on Touhy trip suite General
    generally average between five and six thousand miles driving in 2 weeks allow

    00:35:30

    are record was in May 2012 we actually putting 70 300 miles
    in 2 weeks now I be sleepy don’t have only one person doing all that driving
    driving but what its like is you wake up in the morning usually in a hotel room
    can you put the weather the night before an over the last few days so you have some idea what the f
    what the atmospheres doing some idea out where storms may be most likely
    Kylie and we determine ok where do we think severe weather is most likely
    both today and tomorrow in usually the next day

    00:36:05

    reply route we drive to wear store for most likely ideally we get there an hour
    our 2 before storms form in Clovis free up and wait for because it
    is it a lot better to sit around a gas station a truck stop McDonalds for a couple of hours
    in wait for storms to form and say hey look at that store 150 mile
    the miles that way it was really cool I wish we were there CN two and a half
    2&a half hours so when you are out and you’re trying to chase a storm why are you chasing it
    and how close do you get to them there several different reasons why people

    00:36:40

    go out and chase storms most of my first chases
    route from 2004 to 2010 hour in the name of science I will take the
    take the mobile Doppler radar another instrument vehicles out to the storm
    get high resolution both in time and space radar data on the storm
    determine why some of these rotating supercell thunderstorms priest tornadoes
    ny some white some down in his culminated in 2009 and 2010
    the 10 with a project called vortex to that stands for the verification of the

    00:37:15

    the origin of rotation in Forney does experiment to wear very creative with
    acronyms in science and we have 30 to 40 vehicles going around
    going around the storms Gathering integrated data sets to hopefully better answer that question
    we can you know what we probably increase elite I’m on a tornado warnings
    then beginning in 2011 the science project concluded for the tie
    for the time being id lives in my second ear hear the vine I said you know
    if you’re studying animals and you really want to learn about animals you’ll go to the zoo

    00:37:50

    zoo or you’ll go on safari in Africa you’ll go with it
    if you’re studying geology anyone about rocks well you’ll go out to Utah
    Utah are some places has the kind of rocks you want to look at you go out with the rocks
    well if you want to go look at the store in about 40 out looking storms in lycra
    like rocks unlike zoo animals storms move they don’t always form
    insane places usually don’t I so that is where all the driving comes in
    what’s it like to be next to storm like that I’m not going to

    00:38:25

    adrenaline rush like I said every storm with different
    different and you don’t know now you have some idea what the chances of tornadoes
    does might be that day but you don’t know if someone is going to produce a tornado or doesn’t
    doesn’t c** blast may your on Kansas in real late starter
    market data are van was in the shop at a cracked fuel pump rental 230 in the afternoon
    afternoon fortunately or somewhere I wanted to be about an hour and half way we drove over there
    where we watch this storm form your standing there watching the storm a true story

    00:39:00

    little fun with my said hey that look at that wall cloud over there top 6 miles away
    few miles closer it looks like it might do something interesting who got the van Reed Road north
    driving north on the road with line with hills and trees morning store chasers
    chasers don’t like or Hills entries because they block you view and weed
    and we turned off on the side road came over the cylinders is Big Town tornado sitting there probably
    Ubly 45 miles away we had no idea it was there in Spanish
    feel rite sitement that’s one of the things that the only thing we looking for

    00:39:35

    not all about tornadoes I want to cut in and f*** something to say
    when you came across the sea between a credible excitement which beer a part of that
    what if your right next to it if you’re not scared I think there’s something wrong with you but we were
    we were 5 or so mild away from this tornado
    in this particular tornado that wasn’t moving at a is very unusual this particular tornado
    what really moving all I would you most tornadoes move from west Easter
    Illinois southwestern NE that’s not always the case like I said by looking at

    00:40:10

    radar radar image of the story of some idea where the storms going in
    if your right up next to it yeah that’s extremely dangerous and I know it
    there’s some folks to go up that go that close usually to get video that is
    is extremely dangerous to do and I would never do that
    03 the weather for storm chasers who work for chili killed
    last me for the first near Oklahoma City I saw that storm from behind
    best of the storm we had a pretty bad you the tornado

    00:40:45

    through the rain but we were behind it it wasn moving atlas
    and three of the storm chasers killed were their mission was science it was too
    put probe to put scientific instruments in the path of the tornado
    sounds pretty easy the tornadoes over here its moving this way just drop some of these
    these things and get out of there with plenty of time to spare
    bacon change their path in most tornadoes aren’t that why that particular 1 was
    over 2 miles wide sexually put down something have

    00:41:20

    have the tornado go right over the difficulty think so their mission required to get up
    get up very close to a tornado tornado
    very large in very strong in there actually medical section 4 to Caesars
    Cesar subway to seize like miniature 20 does rotating around the center of the tornado
    tornado over a hundred miles an hour fortunately they were
    unable to get out of the way off of the tornado did one of those section 40
    Car Show as in part of your world is a clinical professor University you take outs

    00:41:55

    students to go to TJ storms we we we don’t when you say
    chase storms it sounds like you’re driving after the storm in pregnancy we’re not
    not doing that we we go out in the observed storms are we observe atmospheric
    convection ok and still use to worry about what might happen if you guys did Macomb
    misjudgement quote is the the sense of responsibility is ultimately there
    I have years of experience in both decision making and in navigate
    navigating Vehicles hopefully keep us out of harms way

    00:42:30

    and knowing that I’m the leader of the group in basically what I say goes
    does um I’m very very careful not to do something that would make me
    would make me uncomfortable me and you follow some basic safety rules for example you always
    always try to leave yourself not one but to escape routes in paved road
    who wrote you don’t want to get on a dirt road in the rain, turns into mud
    especially down in Oklahoma Turks clay it turns into very very slick
    mud in the ditch you don’t put yourself too close

    00:43:05

    close you don’t put yourself right in front of the tornado producing region of the sea
    the storm you don’t drive up next to a tornado you stay out of the large hail
    hail all of these things but the number one danger with
    any kind of storm observation beat scientific ur educational or otherwise
    is is just driving that many miles
    miles are people next to storms doing stupid things to talk about
    distracted driving with people you no texting while driving you don’t want to do that

    00:43:40

    checking the radar while you’re driving you don’t want to be staring at the store
    the store while you’re driving you don’t want to not pull all the way of the country road
    dont pull away from your car basic things like that
    most dangerous part one thing I want to ask you as a journalist
    this weird relationship with breaking news okay so when breaking news happens stares at adrenaline
    when you were talking about exciting to be an environment where you’re trying to cover the things that also
    breaking news happens sometimes because there something awful right that happened to Jeff

    00:44:15

    the Japanese tsunami you’re right you know war um so I
    so I have this kind of love hate relationship with stuff like that do you feel that way all about tornadoes
    does anybody think about the destruction of their causing when you’re out trying to figure them out for summer
    absolutely Mitel you know the students before we go out in the field of classroom
    classroom instruction on weather in forecasting in safety in all kinds of things
    is a look if your you know we’re going to lunch at McDonalds
    open some small town don’t walk around being so excited home answer

    00:44:50

    there could be big tornadoes today would that be so cool well if that’s your
    that’s your farmer your small town you’re not going to be very excited about that
    I wasn’t very excited to see that forecast for where I live
    back on November 17th and when the tornadoes going on yes
    yes there’s for some folks that’s what they’re looking for like I said that’s not my
    my one goal of beautiful storm that doesn’t make a tornado can be very very
    Mary rewarding to me what is Shakespeare’s just a little bit

    00:45:25

    a lot of the questions that we had over the years about tornadoes have come from people wanting
    wanting to know when they’re coming so that they can get to safety how reliable is
    Bible is weather prediction technology well yeah
    relative interesting questions you ask in terms of looking
    couple days out we generally a pretty good handles how winners going to be a
    severe weather hurt when i do I break a couple days out sample the November 17th
    how is forecasted of elevated risk assessor weather for Sunday

    00:46:00

    I’m at least 4 days out the National Weather Service in done that I remember I was watching
    watching other computer models of the atmosphere come in and was really that Friday night
    before the event I was sitting sitting at home Friday evening watching the models
    cabin and I said well this looks like it could be a major severe weather
    weather events that was forecasted saturday by The Weather Service
    nn the new outlook came out how late Saturday night it was it was pretty chilly
    preaching to read but it read conditions are favorable for multiple violent long

    00:46:35

    long track tornadoes across portions of Illinois and Indiana
    exactly what did happen during the late morning in into the early afternoon
    what that said the sciences nowhere near where we can say
    tornado will hit Gifford on Sunday a tornado will hit near Villa Grove
    The Grove on Sunday tornado will not hit champaign-urbana on Sunday
    Sunday we can’t even do that you know a couple hours out
    how not why not well thunderstorms and tornadoes

    00:47:10

    small scale phenomena there not very big, big tornado
    tornadoes something that’s a mile wide most tornadoes ur no 10
    50 yards wide somewhere in there thunderstorms and tornadoes
    supercell for maybe 10 miles across time in India
    the way the atmosphere works is the smaller the things are the less predictable they are in the shorter than
    order they last something really big like a low pressure system
    the swirling cloud from low pressure system getting Compass half the United States

    00:47:45

    who sings last for days halo is over Kansas today don’t move NE
    up into Minnesota tomorrow we can predict that I’m fairly well but
    where exactly will the thunderstorm bond for example one that cold
    cold front when we can’t say that you’re giving a presentation about tornado preparedness the frightening
    what are the most important things in order to be prepared
    prepare for 30 right okay we’ll number one his if a tornado warning issued
    don’t wait for the sirens if you hear the tornado warning issued

    00:48:20

    if you seek substantial shelter that means no mobile homes that means no cars
    cars on the number to is get to the lowest floor of that Shelter
    alter a preferably a basement in an interior room to the idea
    is Brittany walls between the tornado when’s the right side in use possible
    possible a basement for preferred but not every house has a basement
    basement I forgot my house doesn’t have a basement I’m so good place to go to class
    what are special eng interior bathroom I’m white bathrooms because the

    00:48:55

    the pipes are the metal pipe that run through the walls let’s go to provide extra
    reinforcement to the walls another good thing to do if you’re at home
    I’m getting the mattress for heavy blanket something that’s cushioning
    but can also offer protection to your head and neck and body another real easy
    easy tip is if you hurt when running in your home or you have it with you
    put your bike helmet designs for protect you from impact if you fall off
    all of your bike on so you know debris gets blown into your head help protect you from

    00:49:30

    take you from app that’s a really good thing in over her dead before it something that’s Weaver
    we really only talked about for the last few years I don’t know if it’s a bird it’s really enGenius
    and even if you don’t have a bike helmet if you’re really worried about tornadoes you can go out to the store and buy one for
    one for probably 40 or 50 dollars another get a good idea to put your shoes on
    IKS India likely that you do get hit by tornado
    there’s going to be stuff everywhere to breed glass rocks
    who knows what I’m thinking don’t want to be stepping on without you

    00:50:05

    Jeff thank you very much for doing me today a1 Lindsay thanks for having me out of my pleasure
    Pleasure P Miley and I’ve been talking with half hour with Jeff refrain the storm chaser
    chaser and clinical assistant professor of atmospheric science at the University of Illinois
    giving a presentation this evening about tornado and severe weather preparedness at the Bech minutes
    Instituto de Torreon in Urbana at 7 o’clock p.m. Detail worth noting there is free
    free parking available at the you lie parking garage University in Matthews right next to the Bakken Center
    tomorrow on the show Jeff Bhasker toxic Mycolog remember the University of Illinois

    00:50:40

    Illinois check to an editor of chest Life magazine about the world of collegiate chest
    you’ve been listening to focus on w.i.l.l.i.a.m 580 again I’m with the moon Jason Crawford
    Technical Director Ryan Weber is our intern thanks for joining us