Concertos for multiple instruments were very popular in the 18th century. But in the 19th century, the solo concerto became dominant, because of the rise of superstar performers. Brahms successfully bucked the trend with his Concerto for Violin and Cello, but Beethoven had one of his few failures with his Triple Concerto. But our century has reversed that judgment. We'll hear from both these works.
Classics of the Phonograph with John Frayne
One of the orchestras to emerge on the national scene during the early years of the CD was the Seattle Symphony Orchestra. With Gerard Schwartz as conductor, this orchestra on Delos CDs issued a number of outstanding performances, especially of American composers such as Howard Hanson. This orchestra and label showed yet once more the power of recordings in establishing a national, if not international, reputation.
Most performing musicians have a store of encores to play after the serious music of the concert or recital is over. A good encore is usually short, has immediate appeal, and most of the time a change of pace and mood from what has gone before. We'll play some of the favorite encores of famous violinists, from the days of Fritz Kreisler, to the today of Gil Shaham.
We'll hang the miseltoe for such medleys as Ralph Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on Christmas Carols and listen to the way that such conductors as Herbert von Karajan, Sir Thomas Beecham and Leopold Stokowski played holiday specialties.
Conductor Zubin Mehta emerged as a rising star in the 1960s, and in the course of a highly successful career, he has held the podium for long periods of orchestras in Los Angeles, New York, and in Israel. Along the way, he has made many successful recordings. We'll hear highlights from his extensive discography.
Many composers have thought that they were the best interpreters of their own works. Many conductors and critics have not quite agreed. Whoever has the better argument, there is one thing to be said for the composer as interpreter: we are hearing the music more or less as he or she intended it to sound. We'll sample such composer/conductors as Darius Milhaud and composer/pianists as Erno Dohnanyi.
Thanksgiving can mean many things in music. Handel expressed thanks for the end of a war in his Royal Fireworks Music, Haydn gave thanks for bountiful harvests in his oratorio The Seasons, and Charles Ives got nostalgic through old hymn tunes in his "Thanksgiving" section of his New England Holiday Symphony. We'll stay in a Thanksgiving mood with some great composers.
In 1979, the conductor Leonard Slatkin began a 17-year tenure as music director of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. During those year, Slatkin and that orchestra issued a series of recordings that raised the St. Louis ensemble to the ranks of one of the 10 best orchestras in the United States. Due to the decline in classical recording, that feat may not be duplicated in a very long time. We'll sample some of their recordings.
The era of the 1930s was a heyday for the recording of piano music, both in solo pieces as well as piano concertos. The roster of great pianists was full of legendary names: Artur Schnabel in Beethoven, Arthur Rubinstein in Chopin, and both the composer Rachmaninoff in his own concertos but also his young Russian colleague Vladimir Horowitz as a rival in Rachmaninoff's music. We'll sample some of these historic recordings.
The last 20 years or so have shown a retreat of major labels from the recording of classical music. But in that time, Klaus Heymann, the founder of Naxos records, has become a major player in that field by following a daring marketing strategy. He priced his CDs low, used Eastern European orchestras at low fees, and recorded much esoteric repertory for the first time. We'll sample some characteristic issues by that label.