Scott Tinker on the Switch Energy Project


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Scott Scott tinker says he made the documentary film “Switch” to explore the best route to an energy how to win energy transition picking technologies the most valuable long term term for meeting a growing global demand for energy tinker is a geology professor professor at the University of Texas in switch travels the world just about every energy technology you can imagine before choosing the ones he believes can serve people best in the decades to come to your senses Lucien’s come out a political agenda you can decide for yourself with Scott Scott tinker Jones be today on Focus engine Meadows program continues after the news welcome to focus on the focus of Jim Meadows there are a lot of folks advocating a lot of approaches when it comes to an end what comes to energy but I guess today says he’s a meeting at a balanced approach that considers the concert is the world’s energy and enviromental needs and a real world praise 11 appraisal of what will actually work Scott think you’re is a professor of geology and director of the director of the Bureau of Economic colleges at the University of Texas at Austin Austin as well as the state geologist of Texas and in the documentary movie movie “Switch” which he made with Harry Lynch tinker travels the world the world to look at different energy technologies and concludes with his own proposals for the proposals for the best mix of energy technology for the foreseeable future and both of the movie switch and Scott tinker will be at the university the University of Illinois Urbana campus tomorrow there’s a free showing tomorrow night tomorrow night at 7 p.m. With Scott teacher in attendance at the Lincoln Hall home theater its a presentation of the Prairie Research Institute at the University of University of Illinois also earlier in the day professor tinker gives seminar on Hyde are on hydraulic fracturing of the role of Shell gas in the US energy future future thats tomorrow at 2 p.m. At 1030 Mumford hall on the U of I campus Campus Amscot take your is our guest right now Hiiraan focus pressure take your welcome to the pro welcome to the program a great things to be here Scott you use what you use the word switch to refer to a transition do a better I guess better I guess energy technology mixes is there coming to the standing of something new is need new is needed to the status quo this is not going to do it are you doing I think not so much in understanding that that’s happening there need it but it just has been just has been happening with continue to happen we see no change in energy change in energy mix going on for sentry now a lot of that stripping by of writing things economic things economic efficiency and so we were really trying to Jenna with that continue transition looks like transition looks like and what are some of the things that drive it how quickly can happen well before we go further I just want to have it if you have a question for Scott tinker about the world’s energy world’s energy needs the best way to meet the needs of a call at 1 800 2229 2229 455 toll free 1 800 222 wyll email address wyll dashed of Illinois and we welcome you questions on Facebook and Twitter and focus 58 580 Scott in the movie switch you calculate that all that lets you forgot the numbers right for each of us used 20 million watt hours in a year first year and I guess as for purpose of the discussion you to find that unit as a person the person how much how many people do we need does do we need energy for Indian in the future tell me about how you came up with an amount is that a realistic amount knowing that many knowing that many millions of people right now use for less electricity right infected infected to global average 20 million 1 hour global average retake people who are totally off the grid totally off the grid plus super plugin people in America to ya infect American Jews American Jews about 95 million watt hours what really picsArt way well we we serve lyrics realized and if you look across the across the Canada global industrialized nations of that averages beverages how much higher the it depends in part on distances distance is Dr that has a lot to another kind of things but you know you’re right onto right onto undeveloped nations were just really developing nations that kind of energy that uses very different as well so it’s pretty pretty complex complex system but we wanted the main goal that we wanted to achieve there was 24 there was too full to get some unit that people for energy extra skin can can taking understand and compare different kinds of energy to one another using it using a standard unit of some kind but also a little bit more Sudley perhaps with sleeper haps was to put things in human terms to record nicest people are the only consumers consumers energy and matter okay and I think I think one thing that you made clear the film is said you know the energy usage is going down going down there is there a growing middle classes in Asia offer for for instance for instance who was all like to live in the Senate living that were living in the West so they are starting to there are starting to use more more energy yeah in fact using Asia using Asia as an example you know you see 1.3 1.34 billion people in China course what is the similar number in India and growing growing um close to a billion people in those two countries alone Ave don’t have very little access to energy sew a billion people that’s people that’s the United States they don’t have energy and they are starting to grow industrialize so it’s one of the big challenge is I just started showing this and some of the talk site if you look at a map of the world and put a Butterfinger write on about Bangkok Bangkok Thailand in Southeast Asia draw circle around it this goes this goes into China but doesn’t COO doll of China and that same circle left and India India India and come around here no part of Southeast Asia did not a huge circle turns out more people live inside that circle ride that circle in the world today in outside what are they are the countries in that circle doing now how are they set in terms of terms of increasing their energy production will they consume the consume more energy in the aggregate than the rest of the world are any other big deal political party because of the number of people per cap upper capital base is less talk about they are growing if you look at the mix of energy mix of energy inside a circle its right at about 50 percent Cole and that’s not just electricity generation that’s all energy so about half of the total energy is coal is coal which means if you had up all the coal production Russian consumption around the world the rest of world its less than inside this circle Circle that’s what a great challenges Cole is an affordable available in reliable reliable sources of energy heat to cook in well water make steam make steamed turn a turbine make electricity but it’s also produces a course a lot of sulfur what is sulfur and nitrogen and carbon dioxide things with it so it’s one of the guys it’s one of the big challenges in the transition is how to think about changing from from a carbon-based fuels Kohls largest carbon into other forms forms that’s one thing that struck me with with your film is it you do take into account account environmental questions you seem to make you seem to accept the the hub mobile global warming form ions formed by men bye bye manmade energy output as is something that is happening in something that has to be addressed address sure you know that is not a film about global warming is not a film about the environment the environment but these things are so we’ll be together energy environment in the economy or so we’ll be together so we’ll be together this week with a film about energy and then we let the the scale in the end the Great access we got the cities in the trick people that we were able to visit with tell that story a little bit different perspectives in the wrong way Enron ways again us not focused on it enough to cover Goldwyn Google Winder GA hours but not really into it again does things 10 things 10 to come out and hand part of the one of the great challenges of course is looking looking at emissions in the atmosphere well in the film you consider all the really old really all the of all the possible light energy production message that I can think of think of any go to some really really impressive facilities around the world illustrating each of them each of them when you started looking at this question um did you have any did you have any preconceived notions what you thought you might come up with at the end of it yeah yeah you know we’ll bring your own biases and I was born into infinity do I have any energy business my whole life it and then so we’ll bring those biases to things things but I met Harry Lynch is the director of the film into a documentary filmmaker Baker we greet a couple simple things that we were going to pre write a story which is important import we still on for 2 years 11 country so we didn’t have will never be written script we agreed we would make anybody look stupid and we wouldn’t p*** and we wouldn’t hit somebody get somebody else which is sort of some documentaries going to take that more active Atmore after Prochem we we were going to go down that road for those are the three things we set off to do what to do to be a subjective could bring my bios is in his b*** in doing that doing that the story kind of begin to tell itself as we were filming in for the year post production Ave post production afterwards free screenings for documentary filmmakers in the publican Aid fill out fill out some different surveys we give a moose a lot in the post production process SS and try to tell a story the entertaining but also but also objective looking as much as we couldn’t what’s there today and some the challenges is it going to the future without being too heavily biased biased and I’m wondering there then as you went to are your your your filming your filming on location would you still at did you still will you still undecided about the conclusion or have you already done the research by a bond associations will I been in Bennett in energy my whole life so I had certainly with lots of experience in different things different things to tell you something that changed in my head across several years is several years were the impact of personal choices the things the things that we can do in a fish in sea in becoming better in the way we understand use energy insert lease a scale understood it but but it really comes forward is is talking about 7 billion people people how do you provide Escale reliable affordable energy people and still real environment Lisa Stanfill it’s that you know that junk sure there’s a chance is not simple I think it’s all over but there’s not a one size fits one size fits all and that’s think that’s what kind of has to come out indocin in the actual fact data this is focus mg Meadows were talking about does for talking about the future of energy with jaundice Scott take care of the University of Texas at Austin Texas at Austin lays out his thoughts about the subject in the documentary film switch which you could see it tomorrow night at 7 p.m. At the Lincoln home theater cedar and talk to a professor teacher as well when you can talk to him now call us at 333 3339 455 local number but feel free to go to a toll free number at 18 at 1 800 222 94551 800 222 22 wyll are in mail addresses will dash talking Illinois dot EDD when Twitter in focus at focus 580 80 I’m going to up first thing you should spoiler alert that I’m going to talk about I’m going to talk about the conclusions of a what you come up with as a as long as as possible I menu for a of for energy in the future itchy in the future in the long-term one thing I wanted to make clear maxilla fuzzy on it now as I ask you when you come up with the other side this sucks this this menu UVa of violence Joyce’s were you thinking about about a crush on a global scale RC North American scale a definite global scale global scale so so that all things considered that I love this would be this would be where the probably the largest uh uh the the largest use of energy come from although you talked about facilities cilities when I’m thinking about hidroelectrica facilities in Norway you know its citizens is it seem pretty clear that you have them it’s a good idea to use them yes infected the week we have a little Monica rial you get you get you use what you have where you have it that really drives mix if you have hydro in Norway Norway absolutely apocryphon rainfall in a use at the Iceland use is geothermal is geothermal umm some countries have tremendous Solar City can use at or when others have great a fossil fuel resources in Irvine nervous affordable reliable for them the challenge course is to make sure we continue continue to make more by mentally stable transition so its a its a global look like a little description of the future not a prescription what a prescription for the future well what is by the time you reach the end of the movie in please correct please correct me hear if I have the details wrong you’re proposing a combination of reliance on reliance on natural gas much more so the now nuclear energy clear energy following the French model which includes recycling of spent nuclear fuel fuel so there’s a lot less spent nuclear fuel that you have to store and renewal and renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power does the 3 does the 3 to the grow yes they do and cold the creases proportionally oil decreases oil decreases proportionally Hagen dealer in percentage terms as a mechanical energy and those natural gas cruisin nuclear goes in a girl and im in percentage percentage terms which which could mean that a coal and oil production production could actually increase in whole numbers exactly do while longer off most the population expert forecast of plateau somewhere around 10 somewhere around 10 billion people and the combination of adding 3 more billion people the planet the planet which we do about every 30 years we had about 1 billion every 30 years now and industrialization growth of developing nations Poulan energy they pull that the man now and you know it destroys Asian nations are flat today in infected creasing a little bit of the per capita basis which is good which is good and hopefully some of those technologies continue to improve efficiency in WI efficacy and we drive that energy consumption on a person basis down so that so that we don’t see the same levels of growth scene historically Oakley and I should say the last few minutes of your film talk about conservation ID id doesn’t look like radical conservation biologist talks about what sounds like the common sense the common sense of things are always told to do but maybe we don’t get the yeah infected fakta as I said I didn’t necessarily think it’s me hit me one out of 7 billion people matter as we went into filming of several years ago several years ago but started along the way to put in light bulbs in insulation doing things doing things in my home and we finally bought electric golf cart the does the director her daddy after her daddy goes you do that look at a lot of our local mileage in love with red around the house roundhouse we get there so we gotta fill mission and soap so you know what I learned I’m not a filmmaker what I learned to drive the processes the process is how you conclude film is really where you if you can only if you can only leave your few words with one main what is often with AC last last so we spent several minutes coming back to the individual talking visual talking about personal choices and decision CNN recognizing those translate translate to businesses in the street in my kids in the way we live our lives so that’s really does that’s really does the cultural switch and that’s the big switch is occurring in need Korean needs to continue to occur conservation K also more natural gas WA gas why is the emphasis on natural gas and why so much more fit welders there’s been a decarbonization Jessiann term for over a century from century from carbon which is coal to hydrocarbons oil a lot of car a lot of carbon hydrogen to a lot of hydrogen a little bit of carbon witches carbon which is nothing nothing is natural gas one carbon for hydrogen this been going on is been going on in the energy mix mostly proficiency reasons and send an abundance reasons sew in in from that perhaps app for happy down the road to a non carbon based economy it all from hydrogen hydrogen economy and other kinds of renewable sources so you know what you see is a natural progression in to natural gas yeah there’s a lot of it its affordable its reliable is available it’s less co2 intensive intensive then burning coal oil so there’s a is it is easy to get out of the ground is called is coal oil well in fact it easier natural gas flows easier than easier than liquids in rocks and certainly solid you have to physically mine vine they all still require a extraction of subsurface subsurface extraction like on a tree so you know for a long time natural gas was gas was produced associated with oil from oil gas well boars it still is pretty it still is produced on its own when is found in shale like liquid liquid you have to crack a rocker fracture the rock in order to get it to flow Close is the liquid that still have to be cracked because rocksar if you can yeah you could slab does things to put on your countertop and cheese Head Start rocks for sure well in terms of an indenture indent rims off a of a French ring for fracking to get gas out of shell how how much of the extra additional gas production were looking at will be choir require fracking in what are the environmental questions around that’s a production sure no to big the Big Big topic today in Portland um if you think about shale shale which we just do it is the most common sedimentary sedimentary rock in the world more than other kinds of things so it has a lot of organic material organic material in it when its deposited the environment and the Organix rotten Diane Diane and become hydrocarbons so it is the source rock rock with gas are formed when you go down there now in drill into that Ellen to that sale in a drill a horizontal wellbore on my lawn mower laterally and cracker Rock natural gas liquids liquids that will born blow up the vertical well so the the process of hydraulic fracturing putting high pressure fluids into the earth at death set up an important the size of steps has been going on for a long time on for a long time almost 60 years now uh it’s been going on in oil and gas Oil and Gas basins the bigger challenger course now is the girl was that really is being done in places where has it been done before they don’t have necessary have necessarly does the system setup to regulate regulate it well yet it’s going on in a large number of wells number Wells because it takes a lot of Wales to produce natural gas in oil from shale it doesn’t float it doesn’t Flossies Lisa it takes 112 so the number and location have have increased the public awareness this is going on the fracking itself the actual process of going down in the earth and cracking those rocks Crocs has not been shown yet ever do have crack rock all the way to the surface of the earth country to something you might read my tree Dorsey um it violates physics to do that do that if you were to Frackville close to the surface of the earth that could but down 5 or 6 five or six or seven thousand feet not what does half an hour every you produce Parisi produces fluids water from the shale salt water and gas gas in oil up the pipe and I just like anyone just like any oil and gas well that goes past the aquifer near the surface of the earth the earth to the soccer first have to be protected by submitting the casing against the run against the rock at Sunbury well almost always on occasion location not done well and that gas what does liquid can leak into the aquifer into the aquifer around and have again not very often but it’s a local what’s a local problems it has to be shot in the operator who does that does that if they have a record doing that should be not allowed to just a simple thing in my mind if you don’t follow your permit says permits in the regulation you don’t get to operate other things other things going to the surface when you’re handling a lot of fluid the surface like trucks that can have can have accidents on occasion they do you put C’s fluid into a listen to a holding tank and that on occasion can leak and has and has a again you’re pretty recurrences but there they do happen do happen and so all the surface handling of these things just like always is going on is going on a conventional oil and gas wells very well I think that to its get it’s getting continues to get better and can and can be better than this do you think I can be better on a global scale that um you know all countries in our government governments are committed to being that careful about about about the use of hydraulic fracturing yeah it’s a great question in and then and then doing the doing the repairs and changes when one problems at church map sure you know I think that there are some countries in the world were in Ventura on gas oil and gas turbine produce that don’t do it as well as us um or some other dirt nations and that’s been going on for a long time they need to know the real challenge gym is this is this I think that’ll kinda comes forward in the film is it if you don’t if you don’t want to natural gas is used to make electricity used in heating and cooling Heating and Cooling directly in your home you might have a natural gas stove heater hot water temperature vary version reversal fuel vehicles now compressed natural gas vehicles so so it’s a very versatile fuel if you don’t want to use it or like the hydraulic fracturing fracturing risk reward scenario have to ask yourself and this is worth and this is where I think we don’t do a good job what are the options and and you know for electricity generation there are three big view options natural gas natural gas hole in nuclear we are growing we are growing are renewable portfolios shop in the growing out a percentage spaces vintage spaces for quickly but there still a very small part and date a camper it can’t provide a base load a steady production of electricity Tricity because the challenges of wind blowing in the sunshine and we don’t store energy we don’t store energy so you know if you don’t like cracking in you you gotta think about nuclear Cole Cole and when I say that I have been a lecture lot around the world and you look at that when you look at you look at folks say it and I’m not always the most popular guy in the room what I say hey you know it’s okay not to like fracking but you like nuclear like nuclear Cole and and and quite often people don’t like any of those does and so then you have to say will alright use electric use electricity I don’t mean to see me I mean that sister Leah when you so much electricity so much electricity and dad is how its generator one last question about friends about fracking before we go to the break and you know actually um and we’ll take a call it right after the breakup want to make mixed makes make sure that are the better collar stays with us just before we went on the Airlines this morning live this morning I was hearing on the BBC’s a business daily broadcast the former former president of Shell Oil John Hofmeister talking about fracking fracking fracking and its potential for natural gas but also talking about talking about its use of water and for and him saying it sing at least they are parts of the world and I think he mentions China’s one where they have a lot of natural alot of natural gas in shale but not that much water 4444 4444 for using hydraulic fracturing Johns good friend road a great book why we hate why we hate your company’s fertile yes yeah it’s always a good read active and so hydraulic fracturing does use a lot of water lot of water in a relative sense not as much New Haven close to think like a culture industry culture industry but but it does use alot when you think about um on a soda Millions soda millions a gallon spaces with guns we’re on the numbers in Texas to Big Data pretty dry state Tri State hydraulic fracturing today were very active your Texas use about Texas use about the same amount of water is watering all the golf courses Texas does it takes a lot of water water hose this is not reveal so change the being made um people operators NL starting to use the water use the water that is produced from the Shelby old ocean water salty water fracking produce it recycling and reuse it that’s going on the Marcellus Shale it’s not enough water enuff water you still have to add some but it reduces the amount of it and it uses what uses the produce water to go back down into the rocks were came from that’s a great Advance people are starting to look at ways to reduce liquid use substantially so going toward other kind of liquids or even driven potential for other kinds of ways to crack a rock that don’t involve water necessary Shirley those are for the route there but interesting works being done along those were the days in the dark coarse one of the other good advances is the chemicals in the pudding Chemical to put in the water is about 1 percent of the total still not a triple number so if you have a dream if you have 3 million gallon practice thirty thousand gallons of additives additives what reduces friction and it keeps the biocide aside keep things mold from growing Exedra people looking at ways to change ways to change the chemical mixture things that are a lot more if you will it still accomplish the same the same task so you know I think it is important to read portent to recognize that we’re all in the world together I think accomplish many similar things different in different ways but there but there are good changes it being made to continue to be made what we will continue this discussion and I bring a cooler for a question about fracking Ian just a moment with more talk about our energy future with Scott tinker tinker Iran focus on wyll Rebecca focus with can focus with Scott take your professor of subsurface Geology at the University of Texas at city of Texas at Austin the maker along with hairy Lynch of the documentary film switch James to write a prescription for the worlds future energy needs professor Tinkerbell Beyond Hanford beyond hand for showing off switch tomorrow night at 7 at the Lincoln home theater in the US on the U of I Urbana campus admissions free is also giving a seminar tomorrow at 2 p.m. Morrow at 2 p.m. At 103 Munford hold on we’re talking about right now the role of shield the role of Shell gas in the US energy future but he also believes that it’s a good what’s a good part of the global energy future part of the prescription for the future LSAT line dance outlined in his documentry movie switch let’s go ahead and say hello to a Harriet on Harriet online won the morning on focus morning thank you for taking my call taking my call how many people live in our state flower of flesh but you are how to present yourself at this time we are the process sponding 2045 Illinois Department of Natural Resources natural sources of our state governments have a very strict Us regulations for fracking in Illinois apartment has has it you have been formed possibly willing to talk tomorrow I’ve heard does the regulations for pastor were passed in Obion being discussed up I haven’t read them so I confess confess that I’m not up to speed on your right hepatic is a grouper regulations RV regulations are several states are doing different things I’m happy to discuss anything tomorrow night night in terms of what I have seen understand Lots station works with works with done in and around looking for regulation is it come to pass the ones I think make great sense in others might not make is much sense depending on again local geology regulatory settings Electric anything looking for a church and now the apartment of Natural Resources has horses has because of the danger dangers that you just discussed like some of the wells leaking something chemicals that are used and so on where is the Bells people will be interested in okay thank you very much for calling in anti before before we get to outrun run out of too much time I want to go on to the next one the next form of energy that you have the menu that was nuclear energy and no one ever said no one ever seen to separate from with the idea of nuclear energy is being able to is being able to produce a lot of energy its just questions about safety safety switch always come up and your movie does talk about for instance what happened to the what happened to the other nuclear reactors in Japan that word that what that word amateurs quake earthquake but you use a model you use Frances what you see is a model of of way well handled nuclear energy can you talk more about that prints made a commitment made a commitment the nuclear many years ago because they didn’t have options we talked about earlier earlier they didn’t really have access to colour natural gas for power gen they committed a nuclear nuclear to get a person electricity from you clear now about 52 reactors in actors in France just as Folk season don’t know this about half the number of reactors reactor to see us as we have over 100 for your fourth hand and A one of the things they also committed to was trying to reprocess reprocessing reuse the nuclear waste again this was driven mostly out of Auto of economic reasons they didn’t have access to affordable Roy Rainey roll your radio like we do here so the reprocessing ever use was use was partly going out in the city very well that a very large large the world’s largest to processing facility there a hog play bring in Spanish bringin spent fuel from around Europe and even a little farther on trains Truck Center trucks in boats Dairy processes and Rihanna Reon rich the radium and send it back out for use again and then take the 2 percent 45 percent of vision products Alyssa fire vitrified those in store 50 cent store the minis cylinders metal cylinders on right now right now in 30 foot concrete with a backseat approved now and permitted a mitad a geologic repository so how Ling out to jail in this case putting those canisters there haven’t started out yet I don’t think that’s coming coming are they having a resistance I mean there was supposed to be a geological um Depository depository in the US budget essentially I think the potential given up with the idea will they have at Yucca Mountain least politically its it was untenable Harry Reid was trying to get reelected in Nevada that wasn’t going to work work form if that was going forward politics came in and the geologic in the geological posin US is the least put on hold at least one with Spencer Papillion sensible billion dollars creating um Frances I’m sure there are folks sure there are folks are concerned about that you know I think that’s when the great advantages of managers of off of democratic government everybody can can listen to can listen to in waiting on you move things forward slowly one of the great challenge great challenges reprocessing here is loss of focus don’t want to waste movie waste moved across their districts on trucks or trains um so it stays it stays at the reactors here in spent in ponds, in the pools and also in dry cask not be so bad be so bad it still energy source down the road Erie processed but it is what is stored where is created today at the reactor site so so that is certainly know you use the waist down re use of re use of the spent fuel reduction volume intensity complacer which is nice which is nice lower volume low intensity of the challenges of nuclear challenges of nuclear for sure and of course the other one being the risk of liberation of plutonium weapons grade city poster with grey grade of people concerned about that and that’s why we don’t we don’t have family don’t have much nuclear energy to run yet because of that fight going on there that’s a big that’s a big concert is it when you go down that road of your love love you go down the road of actually getting close to weapons grade nuclear material nuclear material that can be created and made into with premature and that’s that certainly a viable concert so so now in terms of actual safety numbers just the wrong numbers off of off the producing in a kilowatt hour for electricity with nuclear it has been azbn the safest of all translucent a ring considering Chernobyl noble considering 3 Mile Island considering of Japan yep yep does a 3 big ones and in know He Man deaths in 3 Mile Island it was was it was an accident could have happened but didn’t Chernobyl accident happened what happened massively and Japan is ongoing very huge deaths from from the actual radiation I think I done so far 3 from the earth to the city the city collapsed during the title wave the synonmy but the potential for increased for increased cancer in people run those numbers increase likelihood likelihood of cancer from the radiation in the area considering all that the numbers that the numbers or still quite lo relative to know emissions from coal from coal and particulate matter that kind of thing and you know etcetera so it did it again you get to those how do you generate a whole lot of electricity at scale scale that is always on if you will ur base load of their choice Joyce’s it need to be made in and mixes that are there in existence and what’s what you seem to be saying is that is frightening as this is it say that then should say that the Appendix lyrics it from the earth weigh so frightening that I think at least one other least one of the cup of country was in Germany made the decision essential to get out of this lyrics out of nuclear energy Germany did in fact it’s a Vita need an interesting story telling fascinating me to me put a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing ring and then follow close efukt Shima and so they have at least at least currently off more Tori on nuclear although that’s on the bubble right now right now as a result Germany now takes physical delivery of coal Cole from the Powder River Basin United States on train on trains to barges across the ocean on a diesel burning barges on train is on trains to Germany where is burn generate electricity along with her lignite 8 in Lake night is the same kind of low grade Cole we have in Texas is the worst what’s the worst not good stuff you have their Illinois Cole so the sea YouTube so the co2 emissions in Germany have been rising last 4 years in a row so maybe the AA NORAD double din or as a double they don’t some people may be on some governments may be reactive maybe reacted to this its a cold a fordable Veil a reliable and it’s the only and it’s the only other beso Dobson if you don’t do nuclear natural gas so so where is the co2 emissions in the United States have come down to 1992 1992 levels because natural gas has been replacing coal in power plants, Germany’s are going up. Again if you’re worried about global one global warming and co2 in the atmosphere um nuclear produces nuclear produces zero missions natural gas half of coal into their you have have some of the challenges and trade-offs it its not to it’s not always it’s not always what you think well part of the question also seems to be off how well how well plants and facilities are run in maintained on guard for fracking received an email from Allen and he writes regarding cement Cement casing withdrawing Wells this name Anthony in graffiti industry insider estimated up to 20 percent of wells drilled have a quota bad cement bad cement job if there 50000 wells drilled estates 10000 Wells in Allens words that seems like alot to me um bring some just a question of the quality of work that goes in virgos and goes into any facility off of any type of energy technology technology and how can you ensure quality yeah so so currently that’s a very large number of a shirt what you think the other 20 percent of welding bed dimensions is you not credible do you say I love you very high and it again because we go back we go back to century drilling oil and gas wells in the United States in around the world the first one was 1850 1859 in Pennsylvania certainly historically um the summit casing bonding that to the rock wasn’t done as well done as well as a lot of things we didn’t shortly that work well as we know how to do now now not just energy there are now ways to test the cement bond cement bond old is Matt Bomer to see if its got good integrity states regulate that like that pretty carefully there regulators don’t want groundwater polluted polluted I mean we have to come to get away from the conspiracy theories a little bit annex after cells what are the goals and the regulators want to protect groundwater swatches groundwater much is anyone else feel like gas companies want to be loud operate and so they try to do is get a job in who is good job is a can not trying to go out there and rectifier it now they are trying to make are trying to make money so regulations have to be in place with certain standards standard the required I’m actually in favor of love cementing all know getting all known for using a rise in a will before even not just in the ground groundwater it cost more money but it would you add more protection to the to the potential for the kids at the end of the day we all pay for that energy in those prices does prices get passed through dress so it’s not something that it’s going to keep prices Lowes the price is low is a happen we have to recognize it and then I think it so they can see think that so the consumer needs to say what are you willing to pay for it oh the irony you go back to Germany back to the Germany cases Germany wanted for electricity still the run more coal it’s what we say we say and what we do things that we got it yeah we got it we have to recognize our own actions and what we drive for as well as in the cost the cost of energy seems to be something that people from individuals all the way through the streets which ministry want to keep pretty low for used to it this is focus on Jim Meadows still time Meadows still time for your questions about energy for geology professor Scott tinker outlines is energy proposal synergy proposals in the documentary film switch on number is 1 800 222 229 455 e mail address will dash talk at Illinois dot along with these older forms of energy Realty relatively older of all natural gas in nuclear energy you say there is a room where is a room there is a role for renewable energy specifically solar and wind power wind power here in the US Season G’s of these energy forms are really small really small part of the picture there are still subsidized by the government in their hampered by hampered by um you know what they’re happy by the battery technology we have at this point at this point today but you think they have a future yes I think they have a great day have a great future um the challenge with with solar and wind Lauren Windus Equus really want to density yes if the Sun comes down to earth down to earth there’s a lot of energy that comes from the Sun but it’s dispersed the wind blows blouson places in its triffic intermittent but excellent an and again no in terms of energy density wind blowing can only create so much motion motion the large island is to take the lower density forms of heat motion motion and converted into something that’s high density like electricity things one used um take a little and do that and it takes a the plot of land in infrastructure it expensive not really not really a fish in your converting assert amount of the Sun the Sun to use when ur G and they call that a capacity factor efficacy if you will if you will it it mean if you can buy night with clouds and other kinds of things things that it ends up being in the plus or minus 10 percent range for solar Solar people say don’t know what’s higher than that I agree in a good sunny day sunny day you get good conversion efficiency but if you throw everything in the total install installed solar generator around 10 percent Wendy’s hire around 20 percent so these things cost money and that’s one of the great challenge what a great challenges we have to back up because we use we use electricity in real time electronic generated it’s used instantly travel to travel to the speed of light so when the wind stop falling for a little while little while we have to have something else going so that we don’t have rolling brownout sir are the lights don’t come on light still come on and off intermittently another generators like natural gas coal a nuclear that’s why you do have the Smiths of older Newark technologies yes yeah I assume that if there were a breakthrough in battery technology that would change the equation change the world change the world you know if you have any students listening other folks brother pokes if you want to change the world of energy really in many ways change the world the world crack the nut off storage yeah it by that I mean mean affordable scalable a reliable those things have to does things have to come together but if we could get affordable large scale reliable reliable storage of energy whether its electrons are heat or other forms that changes that changes the world good now I can remove intermittent store it and use it and use it when needed and that you know again I’ll say my description description of a prescription for the future has renewables growing more quickly than anything but itself but it’s out there pretty far still and that’s just based on my current knowledge in knowledge and understanding of where we are at large scale energy storage if that move if that moves closer to the present then renewables accelerate um among renewable energy options you don’t seem to be that polish on biomass fuels mixed on it um you know I think biomass biomass that ironically of biomass being kind of things that we burn a day today boosie for heat cooking it still a several percentage globally like 7 or 8 for sale 7 or 8 percent mostly in under elevations are burning wood chips dung hand feeding hey if you’re looking if you look at a biofuel does something that can create a liquid to put into a vehicle you have corn you have corn ethanol there not a prickly energy efficient form we looked alot of the cellulose X in the film went to both nice climates in the south in the south and temperate climates love up in New York looking at some of the things going on create create liquid is liquid hydrocarbons from carbohydrates are Plan vibrator plants and again you’re you’re doing with nature did Elijah geologic time in burials created liquid hydrocarbons from plants that’s what happens when oil what happens when oil is formed what time was a big factor so what we’re doing in trying to do today trying to do today is accelerated through a chemical conversion process I think there’s some research research at the University of Illinois long does lines absolute Lance light switch restaurant absolutely absolutely not on that one yet getting their I mean is the challenges scale colleges scale they know how to do it real big challenges how to get low density is your groin nc is your groin these plants now over lots of land in you gotta collect them transporting do the conversion for City and then liquefied of the King move them to can move them too far Jim you know it move to for your using money to moving in a can the number to create you’ve you’ve downplay the use of Koloff call the most because of the pollution question and that brings up a question that Jem has email to West and with which is some research some research going on here in Illinois carbon sequestration can it help yeah Illinois doing great things aren we were closer we were closely with them I have a large carbon sequestration teen here at the girl wear eye for my day job job is and it certainly can help um the Wii the Wii in simple terms I think we can physically put carbon dioxide back into the rocks the rocks today will Lotto good federally and Industry does Lisa Porter researchers Porter research has shown that you can put it back on the rocks can probably do it scale do it scale physically the challenge course again is is called is cost how do you get out of the stacks eater scrubbing it out of wood out of what’s there today or building facilities it was actually the Future costume the cost of doing that and then moving it compressing it and injecting it storing it monitoring it is a lot so you’re going to add 50 50 percent to a hundred percent in real terms the cost of your electricity depending Tricity depending on what form of of fuel use so that’s the so that’s the big challenge with it but I think we’re starting to look at places with that can be done most affordable most affordable Ian really trying to go to the next level of injection in and see if we can put tens of millions to hundred million tons of co2 back into the earth is the earth to the atmosphere okay well we’re out of time right now but I’m sure you’re I’m sure you’re welcome to continue the discussion with Professor Scott take your the University of Texas at Austin Boston because he is on campus tomorrow on the University of Illinois campus campus for a 7 p.m. Showing off his documentaries film switch at the University of University of Illinois Lincoln Hall theater Hill also I’ll be giving a seminar on are on on natural gas fracturing from shale at 2 p.m. At 1030 103 Mumford hall thank you very much for being on the program today thanks NJ thanks very much look for to see if tomorrow additional thought you have about today’s about today’s program on our website you can go to get directly at .edu/focus.lindseymoon the moon Jason crofters are technical director and handles your calls tomorrow on focus the potential of the potential of urban farming with Will Allen Allen founded growing power urban active urban agriculture program in Milwaukee indyfest bringing forming the countryside to the end tied to the inner city can improve the quality of city life U of I crop science is perfect science is Professor Sam workman will join us to talk about the potential and challenges of urban active urban agriculture that’s on Tuesdays program remember focuses light beach weekend morning weekend morning at 10 with a replay at 8 p.m. On AM 580 and online find Meadows is focused on WILL

The way we power our lives is constantly evolving. Today on Focus, host Jim Meadows talks with Scott Tinker about fracking, his documentary "Switch" and his mission to educate the public about where our electricity comes from and the reality when it comes to try and make changes to what fuel keeps the lights on.

Tinker will be showing his film and speaking at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Tuesday, December 3 at 7:00 p.m. in Lincoln Hall Theater and will be giving a seminar on fracking on . Find more information at the link below.